Royal Marines

Historical Time Line

1800 - 1824

1800. The strength of the Marines was 24,200.

1800. Friday 24th January. A convention was signed at the fort of El-Arish, by two commissioners from general Kleber and those sent by the grand Vizier, for the evacuation of Egypt by the french army. This treaty, consisting of twenty-two articles which was ratified by general Kleber on the 25th, stipulated that the french army should evacuate Egypt, embarking at Alexandria, Rosetta, and Aboukir; and that there should be an armistice of three months, or longer if necessary ; that all subjects of the Sublime Porte prisoners among the French should be set at liberty ; and that the vessels containing the french army should have proper passports to go to France, and not be molested by any of the belligerents. Major Douglas, of the marines, was immediately sent to England by sir Sidney Smith with a copy of the convention, and it was announced in the " London Gazette" on the 25th of March 1800. This official notice of the treaty of El-Arish implied an approval of the measure; but long before its appearance in the " Gazette," the convention had been disowned and denounced by a party, without whose entire concurrence it could not be carried into effect. After making the necessary arrangements for the removal of the army according to the terms of the treaty, general Kleber learnt, to his surprise, that the captain of the Theseus, then cruising off Alexandria, by the express orders of sir Sidney Smith would not allow any vessel to depart from the shores of Egypt; although, it should be observed, generals Desaix, Davoust, and some other officers of distinction, had already sailed for France. Shortly afterwards, general Kleber received a letter from sir Sidney, dated at the Isle of Cyprus on the 20th of February, informing that officer, that the commander-inchief in the Mediterranean had received orders which opposed the immediate execution of the treaty of El-Arish. This was followed by a letter from lord Keith, acquainting the general that he had received positive commands to consent to no capitulation with the french troops in Egypt and Syria, unless they laid down their arms and surrendered as prisoners of war, abandoning all their ships and stores in the port and citadel of Alexandria ; that in case of such capitulation, the troops would not be allowed to return to France without exchange, and that all ships having troops on board, would be detained as prizes.

The instant general Kleber read this letter, he determined on giving battle to the grand Vizier; he nevertheless calmly observed to lieutenant Wright, the bearer of the letter, " You shall know my answer to your admiral to-morrow." That very night Kleber had the letter printed, and the next morning issued it to his army with the following postscript: " Soldats! on ne repond a. une telle insolence que par des victoires: preparez-vous a. combattre!"

It is true that sir Sidney Smith did not affix his signature to the formal convention concluded at El-Arish, but he signed, conjointly with general Desaix and M. Poussielgue, a preliminary document containing the basis of the treaty, of which the last article runs thus: " That the french army evacuate Egypt with arms and baggage, whenever the necessary means for such evacuation shall have been procured, and to withdraw to the ports which shall be agreed upon." This agreement bears date on board the Tigre "8 Nivose," or 29th of December; and it was therefore very natural that sir Sidney should feel indignant at the refusal of his superiors to ratify a treaty which he had full power to sanction. This extraordinary proceeding, which had not the sanction of the british government, evidently emanated from lord Keith, and was contrary to the intention of the english cabinet; for in a letter from his lordship addressed to M. Poussielgue, he states, " I had received no orders on this head from the King's ministers, although I was of opinion that his Majesty should not take part in this convention ; but since the treaty has been concluded, his Majesty, being desirous of showing his respect for his allies, I have received instructions to allow a free passage for the french troops."

The rupture of the treaty of El-Arish stimulated the injured party to wreak the most signal vengeance, upon the Turks, who were undeserving of such animosity, as they took no part in this breach of faith ; but unluckily for them, they happened to be in immediate contact with the enraged french army, for the grand Vizier with his numerous force had taken possession of the dif- ferent strong-holds the instant the French had quitted them on their way to the coast to embark, under the terms of the treaty. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1800. Wednesday 5th February. Fairy and Harpy engaged Pallas.

1800. Thursday 6th February. Loire and consorts captured Pallas.

1800. Saturday 15th February. Lord Keith, when cruising off Malta with the Queen Charlotte 100 guns, Foudroyant 80, Audacious, Northumberland, and Alexander, of 74 guns, and Lion 64, received intelligence from captain Peard, of the 32-gun frigate Success, that a french squadron, consisting of the Genereux 74, bearing the flag of admiral Perree, with a frigate, two corvettes, and several transports having on board 3000 troops, had ailed from Toulon on the 7th, and would attempt throwing supplies into Valetta. In order to intercept this reinforcement, the Queen Charlotte kept close to the entrance of the harbour, whilst the Foudroyant, Audacious, and Northumberland were stationed to windward in the south-east, the Lion off the passage between Goza and Malta, and the Alexander on the south-east side of the island. On the 18th, at daylight, the Alexander chased the squadron of admiral Perree, and captured a store-ship. The Genereux, to avoid the fire of the Alexander, bore up, and the Success being to leeward, raked her with several broadsides; but the frigate soon after became exposed to the fire of the Genereux, by which she had 1 man killed and 8 wounded. At 4 h. 30 m. p.m. the Foudroyant, bearing the flag of rear-admiral Nelson, followed closely by the Northumberland, having fired two shots at the Genereux, the latter discharged her broadside and struck her colours. The only loss she sustained was rearadmiral Perree, who after being wounded by a splinter, lost his right leg, which occasioned the death of this gallant and upright man.

Some idea may be formed of the sufferings experienced by the french troops in Valetta, by the exorbitant prices of the following articles: a fowl sixteen francs, a rabbit twelve, an egg twenty sous, a rat forty sous, and fish six francs per pound: in addition to these privations the typhus fever was making destructive ravages among the troops, and the only bouille served to the sick in the hospitals was made of horse-flesh. In this emergency, general Vaubois determined to despatch the Guillaume Tell to announce to the first consul that the place could not hold out another month.

Shortly after the capture of the Genereux, the Queen Charlotte proceeded to Leghorn, and we shall presently relate the distressing event which sealed her fate. In the early part of March, lord Nelson returned to Eugland, leaving the blockading squadron in charge of captain Troubridge; and during that officer's temporary absence, the squadron cruising off Malta on the 30th of March consisted of the Lion 64, captain Manley Dixon; Foudroyant 80, captain sir Edward Berry; Alexander 74, lieutenant William Harrington (acting), and the 36-gun frigate Penelope, captain Henry Blackwood. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1800. Tuesday February 18th. Alexander and Success captured Genereux and transports.

1800. February. A large convoy under the Command of Contre-Admiral Jean-Baptiste Perrée sailed from Toulon in France to try and resupply its besieged garrison of Valletta on the Island of Malta. The blockade squadron under the Command of Rear Admiral Lord Nelson intercepted the convoy and in the brief battle Jean Baptise Perrée was killed and his flagship captured.

1800. Quote."Every revolving year seemed to add to the naval superiority of Great Britain. In each quarter the enemy's fleets were blockaded within their ports, the happy result of our reiterated victories. In the Mediterranean, Lord Keith, by his cruizers, was highly instrumental in producing the fall of Genoa, to the Austrian General Melas, by cutting off its supplies, and occasional bombardments. Early in 1800 a battalion of Marines was landed at Malta, which had withstood a tedious blockade, and still held out with uncommon perseverance. The occasion presented no opportunities of signalising themselves, but by the most exemplary good conduct, under the following Officers" Captain Weir. (Major Commandant.)

1800. Sunday 2nd March. Nereide captured Vengeance.

1800. Wednesday 5th March. Phoebe captured Heureux.

1800. Sunday 16th March. The Queen Charlotte of 100 guns, captain Todd, was ordered by lord Keith to get under weigh from Leghorn roads, and proceed to reconnoitre the island of Capraia, then occupied by the French; and on the succeeding morning, when about three leagues from Leghorn, she was discovered to be on fire. Assistance was immediately forwarded from the shore, but many boats were deterred from approaching the ship, by the guns going off in all directions as they became heated by the flames. The fire is supposed to have originated in some hay on the booms, which had ignited by falling on the match-tub, usually kept there for firing signal-guns. The mainsail being set at the time was instantly in flames, even before the men could get at the clue garnets. Lieutenant Heneage Dundas went below from the forecastle, with as many hands as he could collect, to drown the lower deck ; the ports of which were opened, the scuppers plugged, fore and main hatches secured, the cocks turned, water drawn in at the ports, and the pumps kept going, and by these exertions the lower deck was kept free from fire for a long time ; nor did lieutenant Dundas and Mr. John Baird, the carpenter, quit this station until the guns from the middle deck fell through. About 9 o'clock, finding it impossible to remain below, these officers got out of the fore-mast lower deck port, and climbed over the bows to the forecastle, where there had assembled about 150 men, drawing water and throwing it as fast as possible upon the fire. Before 1 o'clock the heat was so insufferable that few remained in the head, and many, by jumping overboard, were saved by the boats from the shore. Captain Breedon and lieutenant William Ferguson of the marines, jumped out of the stern-port, and swam towards one of the ship's boats, which the lieutenant reached in safety, but captain Breedon sunk, and was seen no more. Lieutenant Thomas Peebles, of the marines, not being a swimmer, had no chance of reaching the boat, and therefore hastened forward, got up over the ship's bows to the head; and as the last extremity, when the flames had reached the forecastle and the heat became too intense to be borne, he dropped overboard, and was picked up after being some time in the water. There were saved from the wreck 3 lieutenants, 2 lieutenants of marines, 3 midshipmen, the clerk, and 146 seamen and marines. Those who perished were the captain, 3 lieutenants, 1 captain of marines, the master, purser, surgeon, boatswain, 4 master's mates, 18 midshipmen, 2 clerks, 3 surgeon's mates, and about 630 seamen and marines.

After the loss of the Queen Charlotte, lord Keith hoisted his flag on board the Audacious 74, having under his orders the Minotaur 74, several frigates, sloops, and gun-boats, which squadron on several occasions successfully co-operated with the austrian army in their attacks upon the outworks of Genoa; and within the first three weeks of May, the town had been thrice bombarded. The French, being much annoyed by those at- tacks, prepared a flotilla, consisting of a galley, rowing fifty-two oars and mounting 2 brass thirty-six pounders of extraordinary length, besides smaller pieces; an armed cutter, three armed settees, and several gun-boats. On the 20th, in the afternoon, this flotilla, standing outside the mole-head, exchanged several shot with the british ships in passing, and the Audacious was twice hulled by the long guns of the galley. At sunset the flotilla took up a position under the guns of the two moles and the city bastions.

On the 21st, at 1 a.m., the english flotilla made another attack, when the batteries quickly eturned the fire, particularly from the thirty-six pounders of the Prima galley, now lying chain-moored close to the inside of the old, or eastern mole- head. Captain Beaver proposed carrying the galley by board- ing, and after dark ten boats, containing about 100 officers and men, drew off from the flotilla, and proceeded to the immediate attack, in the hope of being able to reach the galley unperceived; but a boat stationed between the two mole-heads opened her fire upon them, and the British then dashed on towards the galley ; the gunwhale of which projected upwards of three feet from the side of the hull, and was strengthened by a stout barricade, along the summit of which several wallpieces and blunderbusses were mounted. As an additional obstruction to the advance of boats, the oars were banked, or fixed in their places, with the handles secured to the benches or thwarts; and with a crew of 257 fighting men the Prima was thus lying prepared, under the protection of formidable batteries. She was first assaulted on the starboard-side a-midships by a boat of the Haerlem, commanded by midshipman John Caldwell, who was promptly supported by other boats ; while the crew of the barge of the Minotaur, commanded by captain Beaver, (who was accompanied by lieutenant Thomas Peebles of the marines), and of the Vestal's launch, by lieutenant William Gibson, got up over the quarter, and after a desperate struggle with the french soldiers on the poop, they drove the enemy at all points, the greater part jumping overboard; and in a few minutes the commodore's broad pendant was hauled down by lieutenant Gibson, when all further resistance ceased.

The boats were then ordered a-head to take the captured vessel in tow, and the slaves in seeming cheerfulness manned the sweeps. After a little delay in clearing her from her chain moorings, the galley moved towards the entrance of the harbour under a tremendous fire of shot and shells, and from musketry on the mole-head, round which she passed within a dozen yards, with no greater loss than 5 men wounded. Of the crew of the galley, 1 was killed and 15 wounded by the British when they boarded; some were drowned, and many others succeeded in reaching the shore. Before the galley was out of gun-shot, an alarm was raised of fire below when a drunken french sailor was discovered attempting to break open the door of the magazine, for the purpose, as he unhesitatingly avowed, of blowing up the ship. Had the wretch succeeded, nearly 500 persons might have perished; for besides the British and the 70 french soldiers and seamen remaining on board, there were upwards of 300 miserable beings chained to the oars. It is to be regretted that lord Keith in his official letter should have been so regardless of the fair fame of his officers, as to have omitted the names of every individual engaged in this very gallant and well-conducted enterprise; but we have the gratification of recording the name of lieutenant Thomas Peebles of the marines, who was one of the first on board the enemy.

On the 4th of June general Massena consented to evacuate Genoa, and with his 8000 troops to retire to Nice; consequently, on the 5th the Audacious, Minotaur, and Genereux of 74 guns, and a small neapolitan squadron entered the mole. On the very day on which the treaty was signed, Buonaparte after crossing the Alps with a powerful rmy, entered Milan, and proclaimed afresh the Cisalpine republic. On the 7th the first consul, still unacquainted with the surrender of Genoa, quitted Milan to attack the Austrians; and general d'Ott, who had quitted Genoa after three days' possession, was defeated by Buonaparte at Casteggio and Montebello.

On the 14th the famous battle of Marengo was fought, where general Melas was defeated with a loss of 4500 men left dead upon the field of battle, nearly 8000 wounded, above 6000 prisoners, 12 stands of colours, and 30 pieces of cannon; and on the part of the French, of 2000 killed, 3600 wounded, and 700 prisoners. A convention for a suspension of arms was signed on the 15th at Alexandria, by which France was put in possession of twelve important fortresses Genoa was consequently re-occupied by the French, and general Massena returned to that city on the 24th. The occupation was so sudden, that the Minotaur found some difficulty in warping out of the mole in time to make her escape.

Rear-admiral sir John Borlase Warren, cruising off the Penmarcks with the Renown and Defence, of 74 guns, Fisgard and Unicorn frigates, detached the boats of the squadron on the evening of the 10th of June, under command of lieutenant Henry Burke, to cut out a convoy in the small harbour of St. Croix, known to be laden with provisions for the Brest fleet; and among the officers employed on this occasion, we find the name of lieutenant Mark Anthony Gerrard of the marines, a volunteer on that service. The boats proceeded to the attack at 11 p. m., but owing to the freshness of the wind, they did not reach the enemy's anchorage until after daylight on the 11th; and notwithstanding they were opposed by a heavy battery, three armed vessels, and a constant fire of musketry from the shore, they captured a gun-boat mounting 2 long twenty-four pounders, a chasse maree of 10, and another of 6 guns, and eight merchant vessels. The remainder of the convoy, amounting to twenty sail, escaped by running upon the rocks.

The boats of the same squadron, with the exception of the Unicorn, in which lieutenant M. A. Gerrard of the marines was again a volunteer, attacked a corvette mounting 28 guns, a brig of 18, a lugger of 16, and a cutter of 10 guns, lying at anchor with several merchant vessels in Quimper river. At daylight on the 24th of June the boats arrived off' the entrance of the river, and for their protection two divisions of marines were landed; that on the right commanded by lieutenant Burke of the Renown, and that on the left by lieutenant Gerrard. The boats in the mean time pulled with all expedition to the attack, but the enemy's vessels had retired far beyond their reach. After blowing up three batteries, the British returned to their ships without sustaining any loss.

Sir John B. Warren having received information that a large convoy from Sables-d'Olonne, bound to Brest, was lying within the island of Noirmontier, anchored the squadron in the bay of Bourgneuf on the 1st of July, with the intention of attacking the ship Therese of 20 guns, a lugger of 12, a cutter, and two schooners of 6 guns each, moored within the sands of the bay, under the protection of six batteries on the south-east part of the island, besides flanking guns on several projecting points.

The boats after assembling on board the Fisgard, proceeded in the evening in three divisions, amounting together to 192 officers and men under lieutenant Burke, assisted by several officers, including lieutenants of marines John Thompson, Charles Henry Ballinghall, Mark Anthony Gerrard, and Hugh Hutton. At midnight the British boarded, and after a spirited resistance, carried the ship and three other armed vessels, as well as fifteen sail of merchant-men, — the whole laden with provisions and ship timber for the Brest fleet but it being impossible to bring them off, lieutenant Burke caused them to be effectually destroyed.

Having performed this essential service without incurring any loss, the boats, in attempting to pass over the sand-banks, unfortunately grounded, and in less tban ten minutes were left perfectly dry. In this helpless situation they were exposed to a continual fire from the forts on Noirmontier island, and from the musketry of 400 french soldiers. But nothing daunted by this formidable opposition, the British attacked some vessels afloat near them, in the hope of securing one sufficiently large to carry them all off. Having accomplished this object, they by great exertion and intrepidity drew her upwards of two miles over the sands, until she floated, by which time the men were wading up to their middle in water. Notwithstanding this gallant perseverance, 92 officers and men were taken prisoners, including lieutenants of marines Thompson and Ballinghall, who were wounded; but the remainder, after compelling the enemy to retreat, got back to their ships. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1800. Thursday 20th March. A battle was fought at the village of Matarieh (built upon the ruins of the ancient Heliopolis), between the french army under general Kleber, stated at 10,000 men, and the turkish army under the grand Vizier Jussuf, computed at 60,000, or some say 80,000 men. After five days' fighting, during which the Turks were driven from village to village, the French gained a complete victory; and the grand Vizier fled with only 500 followers, leaving his camp, artillery, and baggage on the field of battle. The loss of the Turks is stated to have amounted to 50,000, whilst the French suffered comparatively but little.

After suppressing the revolt at Cairo, and the expulsion of a small british force under lieutenant-colonel Murray, which had disembarked from the 50-gun ship Centurion, and some smaller vessels at Suez, the French found themselves in possession of the posts they had formerly occupied in Egypt. In the month of June, general Kleber received an intimation of the desire of the british government to renew the convention; but being now firmly established and having no confidence in the promises of those who had once deceived him, the french general declined any negotiation, and instantly began to strengthen the principal defences along the coast, and to make preparations for repelling any attack which the British might probably undertake.
Unfortunately for the french-egyptian army, general Kleber was assassinated on the 14th of June: whilst walking on the terrace of his palace at Cairo, accompanied by the architect M. Protain, a stranger rushed out of an adjoining gallery, and stabbed the general with a poniard; and M. Protain, in endea- vouring to hold the assassin, was wounded in six places, but not mortally. General Kleber was buried with military honours in a suburb of Cairo, and it will be only justice to the memory of this brave man to say, that among his enemies, no less than among his friends, he bore the character of a brave officer and an honourable man. The command of the army devolved on general Abdallah Jacques Menou, of whom we shall have occasion to speak in our account of the next year, in bringing to a close the French campaign in Egypt.

The garrison of Malta, under general Vaubois, consisting of 3000 sailors and seamen, had been shut up in the fortress of Valetta since the close of the year 1798, menaced on the land side by a powerful force of Maltese, Neapolitans, and British, and blockaded by a squadron of british and portuguese ships.

In the early part of 1799 the french garrison received some supplies by a frigate from Toulon, which had eluded the vigilance of the blockading squadron; but in the latter part of the year the troops began to experience the miseries of famine and disease. To alleviate the sufferings of the garrison, a portion of the inhabitants was from time to time ordered out of the city, and the original number of 45,000 was by this expedient reduced to barely 9000.

On the 1st of November 1799, lord Nelson, then with his flag on board the 80-gun ship Vanguard, sent in a summons of surrender; to which General Vaubois replied, " Jaloux de meriter l'estime de votre nation, comme vous recherchez celle de la notre, nous sommes resolus de defendre cette forteresse jusqu'a. l'extremite."

The blockade of the island was so rigidly maintained since the arrival of the frigate in the early part of the last year with the supplies, that the french were kept in ignorance of the revolution on the 9th of November, until the arrival of an aviso with despatches from the new government. The garrison of Valetta were so elated with the news of the advancement of Buonaparte to be chief consul, that they rashly swore never to deliver up the island to the enemies of France. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1800. Friday 21st March. Petrel captured Ligurienne.

1800. Sunday 30th March. At 11 p.m., the 80-gun ship Guillaume Tell, captain Saulnier, bearing the flag of rear-admiral Denis Decres, taking advantage of a strong southerly gale and the darkness that had succeeded the setting of the moon, sailed from the harbour of Valetta at 1 1 h. 55 m. p.m. The Penelope, then in-shore of the Lion who lay at anchor, having discovered the french ship under a press of sail, captain Blackwood sent a brig to apprize the commodore, and then stood after the stranger. At half-past midnight the Penelope, luffing up under the stern of the Guillaume Tell, gave her the larboard broadside.

She then bore away under her larboard quarter, and discharged the starboard guns, receiving in return a fire from the 80-gun ship's stern chasers. The Penelope continued to harass her adversary by pouring in a raking fire with such effect, that before the dawn of day on the 31st the Guillaume Tell's main and mizen top-masts and main yard came down. About 5 a.m. the Lion, steering between the Penelope and the enemy's ship, and within pistol-shot of the latter's larboard side, opened a destructive fire upon the crippled ship : then luffing up across the bows of the Guillaume Tell, the latter's jib-boom passed between the Lion's main and mizen shrouds; but as the jibboom was soon carried away, the 64 gained a position on the bow of her antagonist, where she continued until 5 h 30 m. a.m., by which time the Lion was so damaged by the heavy broadside of the french ship, that she dropped astern. At 6 a. m. the Foudroyant arrived up under a crowd of sail and passing close to the starboard side of her antagonist, poured in her broadside, which the french ship immediately returned, and with such effect, as to cut away a great deal of the Foudroyant's rigging. The latter unavoidably shot a-head, but having regained her position, the firing recommenced. The second broadside from the Guillaume Tell brought down the fore top-mast, main top-sail yard, jib-boom, and sprit-sail yard of the Foudroyant; and having her sails cut to pieces, the british 80 dropped astern, leaving the Lion upon the enemy's larboard side, whilst the Penelope upon the same quarter was occasionally firing at the enemy's ship. At 6 h. 30 m. a.m., just as the main and mizen-masts of the french ship came down, the Foudroyant, having partially refitted herself, again closed with her opponent. At 8 h. a.m. the Guillaume Tell lost her fore-mast, and at 8 h. 20 m. this nobly-defended ship, from her dismasted state rolled so heavily, that it became necessary to close the lower deck ports and being incapable of further defence she struck her colours, having upwards of 200 men killed and wounded. The Foudroyant had 8 killed and 64 wounded; the Lion 8 killed and 38 wounded; and the Penelope 1 killed and 3 wounded. The officers of marines belonging to these shipswere as follows: — Foudroyant, captain George Wolfe, lieutenants Richard Bunee, Zaccheus Miller, and James Collins; Lion, lieutenants Philip Patriarche and John C. Hoskins; and lieutenant John Senhouse, Penelope; but as these officers composed part of the battalion landed at Malta, it is doubtful if they had returned to their ships previous to the action.

The brave garrison of Malta still holding out, a summons was again sent to general Vaubois by the officer commanding the blockading force, but the reply was in unison with that gallant veteran's former message: — " Cette place est en trop bon etat; et je suis moi-meme trop jaloux de bien servir mon pays, et de conserver mon honneur, pour ecouter vos propositions.' By the beginning of August all the beasts of burden had been consumed, and dogs, cats, fowls, and rabbits, for want of nourishment, had disappeared. Firewood began likewise to fail, but this was remedied by breaking up the Boudeuse frigate. There was also a great want of water, and the troops were dying in numbers daily. The general being now convinced that he could not hold out much longer, wished to save two fine 40-gun frigates to the republic, and accordingly on the evening of the 24th the Diane and Justice put to sea; but they were soon discovered and chased by the british squadron, and after a short running fight with the Success frigate, the Diane, having only 114 men on board, struck her colours, but the Justice escaped and arrived at Toulon. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1800. March. The French ship Guillaume Tell set sail from Valletta to Toulon France laden with soldiers to try and break the blockade of Malta. However, it was intercepted, and after a long battle it finally surrender to a larger British squadron Commanded by Rear Admiral Nelson. The defeat rendered the French position on Valletta untenable, and its surrender inevitable. Although the town of Vaubois held out ffurther five months. It eventually surrendered on Saturday 4th September, by which time the garrison mortality rate from malnourishment and typhus had reached 100 men a day. Malta was retained by Britain, and control of the island was a factor in the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars in 1803. After the surrender a battalion of Marines were garrisoned at Valetta.

1800. March. The British blockade of Genoa and Massena was besieged by the Austrians under the Command of General Melas attacked and by the third week in April had managed to advance towards the Var River. While Massena and half the army in Genoa were besieged by land, by the Austrians and under a very tight blockade by the Royal Navy. In response Berthier moved but not to the threatened frontier, but to Geneva and Massena and was instructed to hold Genoa until at least Wednesday 4th June.

1800. Sunday 6th April. Emerald captured a Spanish ship.

1800. Monday 7th April. Boats of Leviathan and Emerald captured Los Ingleses.

1800. Monday 7th April. Leviathan and Emerald captured Carmen and Florentine.

1800. Saturday 12th April. Boats of Calypso cut out Diligente.

1800. Monday 21st April. Lark engaged a French privateer.

1800. Friday 25th April. Lark and boats captured Imprenable.                    

1800. April - June. Blockade of Genoa'.

1800. April - June. Blockade and surrender of Savona.

1800. Wednesday 21st May. Boats of Minotaur, and consort cut out a galley.

1800. Wednesday 4th June. Thames and Cynthia attacked Quiberon.

1800. Friday 6th June. Impetueux and consorts at Morbihan.

1800. Wednesday 11th June. Boats of Renown and consorts cut out Nochette and others.

1800. Monday 23rd June. Storming of forts at Quimper.

1800. Tuesday 1st July. Boats of Renown and consorts at Noirmontier.

1800. Tuesday 8th July. Capture of Desiree, and consort at Dunkirk.

1800. Friday 25th July. Nemesis and Arrow captured Freya.

1800. Tuesday 29th July. Boats of Impetueux, and consort captured Cerbere.

1800. Monday 4th August. Belliqneux captured Concorde.

1800. Wednesday 20th August. The 38-gun frigate Seine, captain David Milne, when cruising in the Mona passage, at 8 h. 30 m. a. m. gave chase to the french 40-gun frigate Vengeance. At 4 p.m. the latter commenced firing her stern chasers, but it was not until 11 h. 30 m. p.m. that the Seine reached a position on the quarter of her opponent; and after exchanging some broadsides, the rigging of the british ship was so disabled as to cause her to drop astern. The remainder of the night was occupied in reeving fresh rigging, while the ship continued carrying all the sail she could in pursuit of the enemy. At 8 a. m. the Seine got close alongside her opponent, and the action continued with great spirit on both sides until 10 h. 30 m. a. m., when the Vengeance, having lost her fore-mast, mizen-mast, and main top- mast, all of which had fallen in-board, with a loss of 35 killed and 70 wounded, out of a crew of 326, hailed the Seine from the bowsprit of the french ship that they had surrendered. The Seine, out of 281 men and boys, had one lieutenant, George Milne, and 12 killed; lieutenant Archibald Macdonald of the marines, and 24 wounded. Captain Milne, in speaking of his officers, says, — " I am much indebted to the services of lieutenant Archibald Macdonald of the marines, who was taken down wounded, and came up when dressed; but was obliged from a second wound to be taken below. Yet I am happy to state the life of this valuable officer will be saved, to render further services to his Majesty." (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1800. Friday 29th of August, while the squadron under sir John B. Warren, as already mentioned, with several transports in company, was proceeding along the coast of Spain, the french privateer Guepe, mounting 18 long eight-pounders, and manned with 160 men, was seen to run into Vigo, and anchor near to some batteries in the narrows of Redondella. In the evening a division of twenty boats, under the orders of lieutenant Burke of the Renown, proceeded to the attack of the privateer. About 40 minutes past midnight the enemy discovered the boats; and to show that they were prepared to receive them, the crew of the privateer cheered in defiance: the captain having laid over the hatches, to prevent his men from quitting their quarters. Notwithstanding these resolute preparations, the British gallantly boarded, and in 15 minutes carried the Guepe, with the loss of 3 seamen and 1 marine killed; 3 lieutenants, lieutenant John Wright of the marines, 12 seamen, and 5 marines wounded. The enemy's loss amounted to 25 killed and 40 wounded, including her brave commmander, mortally wounded. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1800. Wednesday 25th August. The Battle of Ferrol. During the abortive attack on this place by an expedition under the command of Lieutenant General Sit James Pultney, Lieutenant Jasper Farmar and George Richards with their detachments landed and stormed a battery of six guns which commanded the landing area for the Army.

1800. Friday 29th August. Boats of squadron cut out Guepe.

1800. Wednesday 3rd September. Eight boats from the 74-gun ship Minotaur and 32-gun frigate Niger {en flute), under the command of captain Hillyar of the latter, (in which service lieutenant John Jewell of the marines was a volunteer), proceeded at 8 p.m. to cut out two Spanish corvettes, the Esmeralda and Paz, each mounting 22 guns, anchored in Barcelona roads. At 9 p. m., after receiving the broadside of the Esmeralda, the boats dashed on, and were on board before the Spaniards had time to reload their guns, and after a short struggle carried the corvette. On hearing the cheers of the British, the Paz cut her cables to run under the battery at the mole-head; but the ship casting the wrong way, she was boarded and in possession before 10 p. m.; and in spite of a fire from ten gun-boats, each armed with 2 thirty-six pounders, and a fort which threw shells from Mont- jouic, the prizes were brought off, with a loss of only 2 seamen and 1 marine killed, and 5 wounded. On board the Paz, 1 man was killed and 4 wounded; the Esmeralda had 2 killed and 17 wounded.
The Phaeton frigate of 38-guns, captain J. N. Morris, cruising off Malaga, discovered the Spanish national polacre-ship San Josef, mounting 2 long twenty-four pounders in the bow, 2 brass long eighteen-pounders for stern chasers, with 4 twelve and 6 four-pounders on her sides, having on board 34 seamen and 24 soldiers, and moored under the protection of 5 guns mounted on the fort of Fuengirola. On the evening of the 27th of October, an attempt to cut out this formidable vessel being determined upon, the boats of the Phseton were placed under the orders of lieutenant Francis Beaufort, supported by lieutenant George Huish and lieutenant Duncan Campbell, of the marines. On the approach of the boats, they were fired upon by a french privateer-schooner that had entered during the night, and which lay in a position to flank the polacre; nevertheless, the British got alongside the latter at 5 a. m. on the 28th, and in spite of an obstinate resistance boarded and carried her. Lieutenant Beaufort was severely wounded in the head and received several slugs through his left arm and body; and lieutenant Campbell several slight sabre wounds. The total loss on the part of the British was 1 seaman killed, and 4 wounded. Of the crew of the San Josef 6 men were badly, and 13 slightly wounded. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1800. Wednesday 3rd September. General Vaubois proposed terms for the surrender of the fortress, and on the 5th the articles of capitulation were agreed to by the respective chiefs. Of the two 64-gun ships in the port, the Athenien, the only one in a sea-worthy state, was brought away. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1800. Wednesday 4th September. The French capitulation of Malta to the British fleet, which had been blockading the island for two years. The Marines occupied Valetta after its surrender.

1800. Thursday 5th September. Malta capitulated. of which the Marines took possession. The indefatigable exertions of Captain (now Sir A.) Ball, of the Royal Navy, did him much honor, and it was partly owing to the seasonable arrival of Major General Pigott with a reinforcement, as well as to the debarkation of the Marines, that this important key to Egypt was so soon added to our dominion. The steady vigilance of the Navy, during a blockade of two years, had a pre-eminent share in this final event. The fortress of Savona, reduced to famine, by the activity of Captain Downman and his little squadron.

1800. Monday 11th September. Curacoa capitulated.

1800. September. Active engaged at Amsterdam, Curacoa.

1800. Wednesday 8th October. Gipsy captured Quid pro Quo.

1800. Sunday 12th October. Mail Arrangements Chatham Division. It is possible that many of the Private Men's letters may not reach their friends owing to the incorrectness of the superscription, the Sergeants of the Companies to which such men belong are ordered to address the men's letters before they are brought to the Commanding Officer to sign, after which they are to be returned to the Adjutant's Office, and delivered to the men who have the Commanding Officer's leave to put them into the Post Office themselves upon paying one penny with each letter.

1800. Sunday 12th October. Lieutenants of marines Alexander, Montgomerie, Mitchell, and Jordan, assisted, in the boats of the Montagu and Magnificent, in capturing eleven vessels lying under the protection of a battery and two armed vessels in a harbour near l'Orient. Captain Knight, in reporting this exploit, concludes his letter by observing, — " This service, which was completely and expeditiously performed with the loss of only 1 killed and 3 wounded, has won my approbation, and will, I trust, merit your lordships'." (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1800. Monday 27th October. Boats of Phaeton cut out San Josef.

1800. Friday 7th November. Netley captured San Miguel.

1800. Thursday 13th November. Milbrook captured Bellone which afterwards escaped.

1800. Monday 17th November. Boats of squadron destroyed Reolaise.

1800. Sunday 7th December. Nile and Lurcher captured a convoy.

1800. Wednesday 10th December. Admiral Pasley captured by Spanish gun-vessels.

1800. ‘The life of John Jervis, Earl of St Vincent’ by Admiral Sir William James GCB.
(Extracts from this book published in 1950 by Longmans, Green & Co Ltd)
‘DEDICATED TO THE ROYAL MARINES’ of which Admiral of the Fleet the Earl of St Vincent was Lieutenant-General from the year 1800 to 1814 and General from 1814 till his death, and  who, by their loyal support, enabled him to suppress mutiny which threatened to blunt the only weapon, still unsheathed in Europe, that could hold Napoleon in check, and for and whom he obtained the title of "Royal" after their splendid fighting at the Battle of Copenhagen, of whom he wrote: "I never knew an appeal to them for honour, courage or loyalty, that they did not more than realise my expectations. If ever the hour of real danger should come to England, they will be found the country's sheet anchor", and who, in the many Colonial wars of the nineteenth century and the two World Wars of the present century, have added lustre to their renown and adorned British history by their conduct in numerous sea and land battles, in amphibious operations in all quarters of the globe, in many hazardous assaults and many dauntless retreats, this work is dedicated by the author.
The "sad work" referred to by the First Lord had begun on April 15th when on Lord Bridport making a signal to the Channel Fleet to weigh, the crew of his flagship swarmed up the shrouds and gave three cheers as the signal to the fleet to mutiny. This mutiny ended when the Admiralty met all the demands of the leaders. On May 7th another mutiny accompanied by bloodshed broke out in a squadron of the Channel Fleet lying at Spithead. Order was restored by the most respected and popular Admiral, Lord Howe, who exercised great tact.
It was these mutinies that the First Lord described as sad work; the far more serious mutiny at the Nore had not yet broken out.
Jervis was confident that the men who had served so long with him and had fought so well at St Vincent would remain loyal if untampered with by agents from England but he could not be so sure of the ships that from time to time joined him from England. He knew that if trouble arose he could rely implicitly on the Marines and so his first precaution was to berth them apart and enhance their importance by ceremonials.


The Founding of Australia by Captain Arthur Phillip R.N. at Sydney Cove, January. 26th 1788, Algernon Talmadge R.A, 1937, Courtesy State Library of New South Wales.

1801. The naval strength was augmented to 135,000 men, including a considerable addition to the marines, which establishment was increased to 22,696, and subsequently to 30,000 men. In consequence of an attack made by a small british squadron upon the danish 40-gun frigate Freija, in September 1798, by enforcing a long recognised right of searching neutral ships for contraband of war, but more particularly for the passage of the Sound by a british squadron, the emperor Paul of Russia issued an order for the sequestration of all british property in his dominions. This, however, was shortly afterwards rescinded; but on the 5th of November, the news of the capture of Malta by the British occasioned an embargo to be laid on all our shipping in the ports of Russia, amounting to more than 200 sail. A convention between Russia and Sweden soon followed, both parties agreeing to an armed neutrality; and Denmark, at the instigation of the former, was also induced to join the confederacy. Whilst thus menaced by the threatening attitude of the three northern powers, their hostile preparations were met by a corresponding resistance on the part of Great Britain ; and on the 12th of March admiral sir Hyde Parker was despatched from Yarmouth roads, with fifteen sail of the line, and as many frigates, sloops, and bombs as made the whole armament amount to fifty-three sail ; and there were embarked on board a division of this fleet, under command of Colonel Stewart of the 49th regiment, two companies of rifles, and a detachment of artillery.

The nominal force of the three powers, against which the british fleet was destined to act, was as follows: Russia eightytwo, Denmark twenty-three, and Sweden eighteen sail of the line, having between them eighty frigates and corvettes; but Russia did not really possess more than sixty-one sail, thirty one being in the Baltic, and the remainder in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Of these thirty-one ships, which were divided between the different ports of Russia, not above twenty sail of the line could be brought to act as a fleet; and even these were badly equipped and wretchedly manned. The Swedes had eleven sail of the line at Carlscrona, and by all accounts tolerably manned; whilst the Danish force at Copenhagen consisted of ten sail of the line ready for sea, exclusive of about the same number in an unserviceable state. Thus, the reputed force, as stated by several writers, of eighty-eight sail, did not exceed forty-one of the line; and it must have been under fortunate circumstances that twenty-five of these forty-five sail, could be assembled on any particular time and place. Moreover, this reduced number made up of three different nations, and very little acquainted with naval tactics, were opposed to a fleet of fifteen sail of British, under rearadmiral Nelson.

In the hope that Denmark, in spite of her hostile demonstrations, would be inclined to negotiate, the honourable Nicholas Vansittart took his departure for Copenhagen on the 12th. Owing to the blowing weather, the fleet did not reach the entrance of the Sound until the 21st, when the ships anchored off Knoll-point, on the Swedish shore. On the 23rd the Blanche, with Mr. Vansittart on board, returned to the fleet from Copenhagan, bringing also Mr. Drummond the british charge d'affaires at that capital, who, instead of a reply of conciliation from the danish government, brought one of open defiance; and the Danes, taking advantage of the time which had been lost in negotiating, had considerably strengthened their means of defence.

At 6 a.m. on the 30th, with a fine breeze at north-north-west, the british fleet proceeded into the Sound, in line a-head. At 7 a. m. the batteries at Elsineur opened their fire upon the Monarch and the other ships in succession as they passed; but not a shot struck them, nor did any but the van ships fire in return. The seven bomb-vessels, however, threw shells, and about 200 are stated to have fallen in Cronenberg and Helsingen, where they did some damage. The British observing that there were only a few guns mounted on the Swedish shore, passed near the castle of Helsinburg, and thus avoided the fire from above 100 pieces of cannon on Cronenberg castle.

At noon the fleet anchored, when about fifteen miles from the city of Copenhagen; and the commander-in-chief, accompanied by vice-admiral lord Nelson and rear-admiral Graves, with the commanding-officer of the troops, proceeded in the Lark lugger to reconnoitre the enemy's defences. A council of war was held in the evening, at which it was proposed to delay the attack; but lord Nelson, in urging immediate operations, offered to carry the business through in a proper manner with ten sail of the line, and a proportionate number of smaller vessels. This proposal met the approbation of admiral Parker, who added two 50-gun ships to the number stipulated by his enterprising second in command.

The approach to Copenhagen was through an intricate channel, which the Danes had rendered more difficult by judiciously removing or misplacing the buoys on the shoals; but this was remedied by the anxious care of lord Nelson, who proceeded on the same evening to re-buoy the outer channel, — a narrow passage lying between the island of Saltholm and the Middle Ground. It was at first intended to make the attack from the northward, but a second examination of the Danish position on the 31st, and a favourable change of wind, determined the viceadmiral to commence operations from the southward. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1801. The Baker rifle was used during the Napoleonic Wars. It continued to be in service in the British Army until the 1840's.

1801. Thursday 1st January. After the Act of Union was passed with Ireland which incorporated Ireland into the United Kingdom, there was an influx of Irish volunteers into the Marines.

1801. Saturday 3rd January. At 9h. 30 m. p.m., five boats of the 38-gun frigate Melpomene, captain sir Charles Hamilton, manned with 55 volunteers from that ship, 5 from a transport in company, and lieutenant Christie with 35 men from the African corps, under the orders of lieutenant Thomas Dick, assisted by lieutenant Wm. Palmer and lieutenant Wm. Vyvian of themarines, proceeded to the attack of a french 18-gun brig-corvette and an armed schooner, at the entrance of the Senegal river. Having passed the heavy surf on the bar in safety, and without discovery by the battery on the point, the boats at 11 p.m. had arrived within a few yards of the brig; when by a single discharge of her 2 bow guns, two of them were sunk, and lieutenant Palmer and 7 seamen were killed. Notwithstanding this loss, the three remaining boats dashed alongside, boarded, and after a severe contest of twenty minutes carried the french brig Senegal, of 18 long eight and twelve-pounder carronades and 60 men, whilst the schooner cut her cables and took shelter under the battery. The prize was immediately got under sail, but having unfortunately grounded on the bar, after several attempts to get her or! she was abandoned; and the three boats succeeded in reaching the ship across a heavy surf and exposed to a severe fire of grape and musketry from the adjoining batteries.
In this gallant affair lieutenant Palmer, lieutenant of marines Wm. Vyvian, and 9 men were killed, and 18 wounded. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1801. Tuesday 6th January. Boats of Mercury captured French convoy of fifteen sail.

1801. Friday 9th January. Constitution captured by two French cutters.

1801. Friday 9th January. Constitution re-captured by Harpy and Greyhound.

1801. Friday 16th - 17th January. Garland and consorts captured Eclair.

1801. Tuesday 20th January. Mercury captured Sans Pareil.

1801. Friday 23rd January. Active's company in a Spanish prize captured Sta. Maria.

1801. Tuesday 27th January. Ossian and Sirius captured Dedaigneux.

1801. Tuesday 27th January. Concorde engaged Bravoure.

1801. Thursday 29th January. Bordolais sunk Curieux.

1801. Saturday 31st January. A squadron, consisting of the Foudroyant of 80 guns, Kent, Ajax, Minotaur, Northumberland, Tigre, and Swiftsure, with a fleet amounting to above sixty sail of vessels, conveying an army of 16,000 men under general sir Ralph Abercromby, anchored in Marmorice bay. On the 1st of February the expedition arrived in sight of Alexandria, and on the 2nd anchored in Aboukir bay. A succession of strong northerly gales, attended by a heavy swell, set in, and lasted until the evening of the 7th when the weather becoming moderate, preparations were made for landing the troops. At this time, according to the returns in the Moniteur, the french force in Egypt amounted to 21,000 fighting men; and there were also about 900 sick, 1000 sailors, 4 or 500 greek auxiliaries, with perhaps 1200 persons in civil employments; and the whole was under the command of general Abdallah Jacques Menou.

At 2 a.m. on the 8th, the british troops began embarking, and at 9 a.m. the signal was made for the boats to advance towards the shore, which operation was promptly accomplished under the respective captains and agents of transports; while the launches, containing the field artillery, as well as the detachment of seamen to co-operate with the army, was under the immediate direction of sir William Sidney Smith, assisted by several other officers.

The whole line moved forward under the direction of the honourable captain Cochrane, flanked by the smaller vessels; and the landing was covered by the Tartarus and Fury bombs, while the Peterel, Minorca, and Cameleon were moored as near as possible to the shore. The british force, amounting altogether to about 700 men, was opposed by the whole garrison of Alexandria, consisting of 1500 infantry and 180 cavalry, exclusive of several detachments from Rosetta and other places; forming a total of at least 2,500 men, under the command of general Friant, who had stationed a part of his men with 15 pieces of artillery upon an almost inaccessible hill, which commanded the whole space of debarkation ; while others, with field pieces and mortars, were placed in such positions as the ground afforded. As the boats arrived near the shore, a heavy fire of grape and musketry was opened from behind the sand-hills, and the castle of Aboukir maintained a constant discharge of shot and shells on their right flank; but despite of all opposition the beach was attained, and the troops, having steadily formed, immediately advanced and compelled the enemy to relinquish all his advantageous positions. The boats returned without delay, and before the evening of the 9th the whole army, with a proportion of stores and provisions, was landed.

The brigade of seamen, amounting to about 1000 men, commanded by sir William Sidney Smith, landed with the army; their duty was to drag the cannon up the heights, — a service they performed with their usual alacrity and determination, and in which they sustained a loss of 22 killed; 3 lieutenants, 4 mid- shipmen, and 63 wounded. The army on the same occasion had 4 officers, 4 Serjeants, and 94 rank and file killed; 26 officers, 34 Serjeants, 5 drummers, 450 rank and file wounded: making a total of 124 killed, 585 wounded, and 38 missing. On the 12th the army moved forward and came in sight of the French, whose force had been reinforced by 4000 men under general Lanusse, including upwards of 1000 cavalry; and now amounting to about 7000 men, formed upon an advantageous ridge, having their right on the canal of Alexandria, and their left towards the sea.

Several detachments of marines were landed from the squadron and formed into a battalion, consisting of 35 Serjeants, 32 corporals, 22 drummers, and 500 privates, under the command of lieutenant-colonel Walter Smith, with the following officers: Major: William Minto.
Captains: George Wolfe, Robert Torkington, and R. Roe.
Lieutenants: Paul Hussey, Thomas Mould, John Linzee Shea, Roger P. Symons, Walter Stubbe, James Short, Edward Bailie, Zaccheus Fayerman, Robert Stewart, Arthur Hall, Richard Hill, and John Witts.
Second-lieutenants: John Jewell, Richard Parry, Charles F. Burton, George Peebles, James Jones, Alexander Murray, Zaccheus Miller, Richard Ekenhead, George A. Mayhew, Richard Turner, John Davenport, Thomas Hussey, Thomas Edensor, Thomas Appleton, Thomas A. Lascelles, M. L. Crof- ton, William Pridham, George Johns, Richard Swale, and William Swyer. Adjutant: Charles Tyldesley.

After the battalion had assisted in filling bags with sand for the batteries, they received orders to march at seven on that morning to join the army, then about 15 miles distant, which they effected, after much fatigue, at one on the morning of the 13th. At 5 the troops were under arms and having made the necessary preparations for attacking the enemy, the army advanced in two lines, in order to turn their flank; but the French, anticipating this movement, descended from the heights they occupied, and at about 7 o'clock attacked the leading brigades of both lines. The engagement becoming general, the marines were somewhat crowded in their ranks by the regiments on their right and left, owing to the narrowing of the peninsula on which they actted and it was at this moment, in their too great eagerness to cope with the enemy, they suffered a severe loss.

The brigade of seamen, under sir Sidney Smith, emulated the brave troops with whom they were associated, and sustained a loss of 1 midshipman and 5 seamen killed, and 19 wounded. The battalion of marines had 2 lieutenants, Paul Hussey and John Linzee Shea, with 22 rank and file killed 1 major, William Minto; 1 captain, Robert Torkington; 2 lieutenants, Richard Parry and George Peebles (both severely); 2 Serjeants, 2 drummers, and 27 rank and file wounded. Total, — 24 killed, and 35 wounded. On the part of the army, 6 officers and 150 killed; 66 officers, 61 Serjeants, and 946 rank and file wounded. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1801. Wednesday 18th February. Penguin engaged French vessels.

1801. Thursday 19th February. Capture of Africaine.

1801. Thursday 19th February. At 4 p. m., the 36-gun frigate Phoebe, captain Robert Barlow, when about two leagues to the eastward of Gibraltar, discovered and chased a strange ship near Ceuta, steering up the Mediterranean under a press of sail. At 7 h. 30 m. p. m., the stranger finding an action unavoidable, shortened sail; and on the Phcebe firing a shot at her, a broadside was returned from the french 40-gun frigate Africaine, commodore Le Saulnier, having 400 troops on board, bound to Egypt. The Phcebe steering a parallel course with the enemy, continued engaging within pistol-shot until 9 h. 30m. p.m., when the Africaine being nearly unrigged, having five feet water in the hold, and having sustained a loss of 200 killed and 143 wounded, out of a crew of 715 men, struck her colours. Of the crew of 239 on board the Phoebe, only 1 man was killed; her first-lieutenant J. W. Holland, her master Thomas Griffiths, and 10 men wounded. Lieutenant Thomas Weaver commanded the detachment of marines on board the Phcebe. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1801. March. The following appeared in public orders on the morning after the battle:
" G. O. Uth of March,1801.
" The commander-in-chief has the greatest satisfaction in thanking the troops for their soldier-like and intrepid conduct in the action of yesterday. He feels it incumbent upon him particularly to express his most perfect satisfaction with the steady and gallant conduct of major-general Craddock's brigade, and he desires that major-general Craddock will assure the officers and men of the 90th regiment, that their meritorious conduct commands his admiration. To the 92nd and Dillon's regiment an equal share of praise is due when it has been so well earned, the commander-in-chief has the greatest pleasure in bestowing it.
" Sir Ralph Abercromby desires that lieutenant-colonel Smith and the battalion of marines will accept his thanks, for their gallant conduct in the course of the service of yesterday.

At the request of lord Keith, that corps will march this afternoon to Aboukir, and will place themselves under the command of colonel the earl of Dalhousie."
Accordingly, in the afternoon the battalion marched to Aboukir, where it remained some time after the surrender of that fortress, which capitulated on the 18th, after a bombardment of two days. The castle mounted 10 guns and 2 heavy mortars, and was garrisoned with 300 men, under a chef de bataillon.

Although general Menou was officially apprized on the 4th of March of the arrival of the british expedition in Aboukir bay, he did not quit his head-quarters at Cairo until the 11th, nor did he arrive at the camp, under the eastern walls of Alexandria, before the evening of the 18th. The reinforcements he brought with him augmented the french force at Alexandria to 9730 men, including 1380 cavalry, with 46 pieces of cannon.

The effective force of the british army at Bedah did not exceed 10,000 men, including only 300 cavalry, with 12 pieces of moveable artillery, and 30 pieces in the different redoubts, hrown up to protect the encampment. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1801. Friday 13th March. The Battle of Aboukir in Egypt. The British army of 7000 strong effected its disembarkation at Aboukir, defeating the French force opposing it. In this engagement Lieutenant E, Bailie of the Marines was attached to the 27th Foot. The Marines detachments of about 30 ships were formed into a battalion of just over 600 strong (all ranks), and landed on the Saturday 12th March. This battalion was attached to the 3rd Brigade under Lord Cavan, as were the 50th and the 79th Regiments. It was at once paraded under a blazing sun, and after 2 to 3 hours one half of the battalion set off to fill sand bags for the batteries, while the other heavily laden with muskets and knapsacks of the working party advanced for a considerable distance through sand in which the men often sank knee deep. Some hours later, at 7 in the evening, it was re-joined by the other half battalion and the whole were ordered to march and join the rest of the army, then about 15 miles distant. After the hard day’s work the battalion had put in under a boiling Eastern sun it reached its destination at one in the morning of the 13th, a fine marching record for men whose services had been on ships up to the day before.

At 5am the troops were under arms, and the British advanced in two lines with the object of turning the French Flank. To counter this the French descended from the hills on which they had been posted and attacked the leading Brigades. The engagement becoming general the Marines, owing to the narrowness of the peninsular upon which the fighting was taking place, were somewhat crowded in their ranks by the battalions on their right and left, and it was at this crisis, owing to their too great eagerness to get to close quarters with the enemy, that they suffered severe loss. Both officers and men greatly distinguished themselves, and charged the French so repeatedly and with such determination and gallantry that they earned for themselves the cognomen of “The Bulldogs of the Army”. The battalion was under the command of Colonel Walter Smith, and in Sir Ralph Abercrombie’s Orders of the day following, he was asked to accept the thanks of the General for himself and his battalion “for their gallant conduct in the course of the services of yesterday. (sic)

1801. Wednesday 18th March. The Marines marched to Aboukir, and when Aboukir Castle surrendered after some day’s bombardment, they were again thanked in orders for their assistance and detailed as its garrison. Two days later the Marines were relieved by the 92nd Regiment and joined Major General Erye Coote’s Brigade before Alexandria. This city capitulated on the Saturday 3rd September, the Marines were re-embarked on the 5th, on which day their Brigadier Major General Finch issued the following farewell order: “Major General Finch, in taking leave of Lieutenant Colonel Smith and the Marines under his command, requests him to accept his warmest thanks for the order, regularity, zeal and attention that have uniformly marked their conduct during the period he had the honour of commanding the First Brigade, and he shall be happy on all occasions, to bear testimony to their merit in the correct performance of their duty, in every respect, which has come under his observation.”

1801. Monday 2nd March. Capture of Bienvenue.

1801. Sunday 8th - 8th March. Disembarkation in Egypt. (Naval Brigade Ashore).

1801. Friday 13th March. French defeated near Alexandria. (Naval Brigade Ashore).

1801. Friday 20th March. St Bartholomew capitulated.

1801. Saturday 21st March. French defeated at Canopus. (Naval Brigade Ashore).

1801. Saturday 21st March. At about an hour before daylight, the French attacked the British with great impetuosity; but after an obstinate and sanguinary contest, were repulsed with a loss of 800 killed, 200 wounded, and 400 prisoners, according to their own account; but their loss has been estimated at 3000 in killed, wounded, and prisoners. Among the killed were generals Lanusse, Roize, and Baudot; and among the wounded, general D'Estaing and several other distinguished officers.

The loss of the British was also very severe: it amounted to 10 officers and 233 killed; 60 officers and 1133 wounded, with 3 officers and 31 missing. The commander-in-chief was mortally wounded by a musket-ball in the upper part of the thigh; and major-general Moore and brigadier Hope were both wounded in the head, but not dangerously.

The marines were at Aboukir castle at the period of the action, but the seamen under sir Sidney Smith shared in the battle, and sustained a loss of 1 master's mate, Mr. Krebs, and 3 seamen killed; sir Sidney himself, lieutenant Davis, and 48 seamen wounded: making the grand total in the battle of Canopus, so named by the French, amount to 247 killed, 1243 wounded, and 34 missing.

General sir Ralph Abercromby, at his own request, was conveyed on board the Foudroyant, where he breathed his last on the 28th of March. Major-general J. H. Hutchinson, who succeeded to the command of the army, thus eloquently expresses himself on the death of the late commander-in-chief: — "Were it permitted to a soldier to regret any one who has fallen in the service of his country, I might be excused for lamenting him more than any other person; but it is some consolation to those who tenderly loved him, that as his life was honourable, so was his death glorious. His memory will be recorded in the annals of his country, will be sacred to every british soldier, and embalmed in the recollections of a grateful posterity." (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1801. Sunday 22nd March. Andromache and Cleopatra at Cuba.

1801. Tuesday 24th March. St. Martin, W. Indies, surrendered.

1801. Thursday 26th March. A second ottoman squadron arrived, having on board 5000 Turks and Albanians. This made the turkish force in Aboukir bay amount to six sail of the line, and eight frio-ates and corvettes. On the 3rd of April the turkish troops were landed, and with a division of 800 british, and 8 pieces of cannon, under colonel Spencer, after a fatiguing march across the desert, gained possession of the castle of Rosetta, which was a post of great importance, protecting an unmolested navigation of the Nile, and enabling the British, by a communication with the friendly inhabitants of the Delta, to obtain supplies and provisions. On the 16th the castle of Jullien, on the banks of the Nile, mounting 15 pieces of cannon, was attacked by a division of british and turkish gun-boats, and on the land side by the troops of colonel Spencer's corps; but it was not until the 19th that the castle surrendered, after a brave resistance. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1801. Sunday 29th March. St. Thomas and St. John, W. Indies, capitulated.

1801. Monday 30th March. British Fleet forced the Sound.

1801. Tuesday 31st March. Santa Cruz, W. Indies, surrendered.

1801. Wednesday 1st April. During the morning of the 1st April the british fleet got under weigh, but shortly afterwards re-anchored off the western extremity of the Middle Ground, — a shoal extending along the whole sea-front of the city of Copenhagen, leaving an intervening channel of deep water, called the King's channel, which is about three-quarters of a mile wide: in this channel, close to the town, the Danes had moored their line of defence, consisting of block-ships, radeaus, prames, and gun-vessels. Lord Nelson having embarked on board the Amazon during the forenoon, again reconnoitred the position he was about to attack; and soon after his return, at 1 p. m., the Elephant made the signal to weigh, which intimation was welcomed by a hearty cheer from the british fleet.

The vice-admiral's squadron, amounting in the whole to thirty-six square-rigged vessels, was soon under sail in two divisions, with a light but favourable wind, and, led by the Amazon, entered the upper channel, coasting along the edge of the Middle Ground until they had reached and partly rounded its southern extremity, where at about 8 p.m. they anchored: the north- westernmost ship was then about two miles distant from the southernmost of the danish line.
British squadron under the command of lord Nelson before Copenhagen, 2nd cf April, 1801.
Elephant, 74 guns, vice-admiral lord Nelson, captain T. Foley, 10 killed, 13 wounded. Captain-lieutenant Thomas Piers, first-lieutenant John Claperton, second-lieut. W. B. Watts.
Defiance, 74 guns, rear-admiral T. Graves, captain E. Retalick, 24 killed, 51 wounded. Captain Jos. Lambrecht, seccnd lieutenant James DufF, second-lieutenant William Furber.
Edgar, 74 guns, captain G. Murray, 31 killed, 111 wounded. Captain Alexander Mackenzie, second-lieutenant Benjamin Spencer (killed), second-lieutenant James Campbell.
Monarch, 74 guns, captain J. R. Mosse (killed), 5Q killed, 164 wounded. Captain Anthony Stransham, first-lieutenant James Marrie, second-lieutenant J. C. Urquhart.
Bellona, 74 guns, captain sir T. B. Thompson (wounded), 11 killed, 72 wounded. Captain Samuel Williams, first-lieutenant Henry A. Durre, second-lieutenants Robert Hall and John George.
Ganges, 74 guns, captain T. F. Freemantle, 7 killed, 1 wounded. Captain John B. Savage, first-lieutenant Christopher Abbott, second-lieutenant Charles R. Miller.
Russell, 74 guns, captain W. Cumming, 6 wounded. Captain lieutenant William Barry, lieutenant George H. L. Crispin.
Agamemnon, 64 guns, captain R. D. Fancourt.
Ardent, 64 guns, captain T. Bertie, 30 killed, 64 wounded. Captain John Hopper, second-lieutenant Charles Symonds, Charles H. Ballinghall.
Polyphemus, 64 guns, captain J. Lawford, 6 killed, 25 wounded. Captain George Edward Roby, second-lieutenant Joseph Langston.
Glatton, 50 guns, captain W. Bligh, 18 killed, 37 wounded. First-lieutenant Peter Lely, second-lieutenant. Richard Rouse.
Isis, 50 guns, captain J. Walker, 33 killed, and 88 wounded. Lieutenant Henry Long (killed), lieutenant Richard Mc Cormick.
Amazon, 38 guns, captain H. Riou (killed), 14 killed, 23 wounded. First-lieutenant Demetrius Grevis James.
Desiree, 36 guns, captain H. Inman, 4 wounded. Second-lieutenant John Humphries.
Blanche, 36 guns, captain G. E. Hammond, 7 killed, 9 wounded. Lieutenant Robert Clarke.
Alcmene, 32 guns, captain S. Sutton, 5 killed, 19 wounded. First-lieutenant Stephen M. Sandys (wounded).
Jamaica, 24 guns, captain J. Rose.
Arrow, 28 guns, captain W. Bolton.
Dart, 28 guns, captain J. F. Devonshire, 3 killed, 1 wounded.
Total— 255 killed, and 688 wounded.
Brigs Cruiser and Harpy.
Bomb-vessels: Discovery, Explosion, Hecla, Sulphur, Terror,
Volcano, and Zebra.
Fire-ships: Otter and Zephyr, and some gun brigs, &c. Leaving at anchor, under admiral Parker, the followin:
London 98, admiral sir Hyde Parker, St. George 98, Warrior 74,
Defence 74, Saturn 74, Ramillies, Raisonable, and Veteran, of 64 guns. Part of the night was passed in active preparations for the attack: captain T. M. Hardy proceeded in a small boat to examine the channel and approached so near the danish line as to sound around the first ship, using a pole lest the heaving the lead should betray them.

The danish force consisted of two-decked ships, chiefly old and in a dismantled state, frigates, prames, and radeaus, mounting altogether 628 guns; and these eighteen vessels were moored in a line extending more than a mile, flanked at the north end, or that nearest the town, by two artificial or pile-formed islands, called the Trek oner batteries ; one of 30 twenty- four, the other of 38 thirty-six pounders, with furnaces for heating shot ; and both these batteries were commanded by the two-decked block-ships Mars and Elphanten. Off the harbour and docks, which lie in the heart of the city, were moored two 74-gun ships, a 40-gun frigate, two large brigs, and several armed xebecs; and these vessels also had furnaces for heating shot. Along the shore of Amag island, a little way to the southward of the floating line, were several gun and mortar batteries; and thus, the extent of the line of defence in front of Copenhagen covered a space of between three and four miles. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1801. Thursday 2nd April. The Battle of Copenhagen saw a British fleet under the command of Admiral Sir Hyde Parker fight and strategically defeat a Danish-Norwegian fleet anchored just off Copenhagen, Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson led the main attack. He is supposed to have disobeyed Sir Hyde Parker's order to withdraw by holding the telescope to his blind eye to look at the signals from Parker. However, Parker's signals had given him permission to withdraw at his discretion, at which Nelson declined. His action to carry on resulted in the destruction of many of the Danish-Norwegian ships before a truce was finally agreed. Copenhagen is often considered to be Nelson's hardest fought Battle.

1801. Thursday. 2nd of April. A favourable breeze sprang up with the break of day, when all the captains were called on board the Elephant by signal, and the plan of attack determined upon; the ships being directed to anchor by the stern, abreast of their opponents in the danish line. At 9 h. 30 m. a. m. lord Nelson made the signal for the shis to weigh in succession.
The Edgar was the leading ship, and the Agamemnon was to have followed, but having anchored outside the end of the great shoal, she was unable to weather it, and was consequently obliged again to anchor in six fathoms water. The Polyphemus now followed the Edgar, and the Isis was the third ship.

The Bellona, in hugging too close to the Middle Ground, stuck fast when about 450 yards from the rear of the danish line; and the Bellona, following close to the Russell, also grounded, with her jib-boom almost over her leader's taffrail. The Elephant was next to the Russell, and lord Nelson, on perceiving the situation of that ship, ordered the helm to be put a-starboard, and passed to the westward, or along the Russell's larboard beam: all the successive ships followed the same course, and reached their stations in safety. Admiral Parker's squadron got under sail at the same time that lord Nelson weighed and took up a new position nearer to the mouth of the harbour, but still at too great a distance to do more than menace the north wing of defence.

At 10 a. m. the cannonade commenced, and for the first half hour the only ships engaged were Polyphemus, Isis, Edgar, Ardent, and Monarch. About il h. 30 m. a.m. the Glatton, Elephant, Ganges, and Defiance reached their stations, as did the several frigates, bombs, etc. The Desiree, by raking the Provoosteen, was of great service in drawing her attention from the Polyphemus and Isis; particularly from the latter, who bore the brunt of that ship's heavy fire, and suffered severely. Owing to the strength of the current, the Jamaica, with the gun-vessels and bombs, could not get near enough to do much execution. The unfortunate circumstance of the Bellona, Russell, and Agamemnon remaining aground, occasioned several of the bhtish ships to have a greater share of the enemy's fire than could have been anticipated, or that they were well able to bear: the Amazon was among the many sufferers on that account, as well as the four other smaller ships under the orders of captain Riou, who consequently had to contend with the Trekoner batteries. The cannonade had continued three hours, when sir Hyde Parker, considering that the Defence, Ramillies, and Ve teran (which had been detached to reinforce lord Nelson) were approaching but slowly, and that the three line of battle ships remained immoveable where they had grounded, while the Agamemnon continued in the same position with signal of inability flying, was induced to throw out the signal to discontinue the engagement.

It is related of lord Nelson, that when the signal-lieutenant reported that No. 39, " leave off action," was flying on board the London, the vice-admiral continued to walk the deck and appeared not to notice it. The officer meeting him at the next turn, asked if he should repeat it: " No!" he sharply replied, " answer it." Presently his lordship called after him to know if the signal for close action was still hoisted; and on being answered in the affirmative, he quickly observed, " Mind you keep it so." Then reverting to the message of the commanderin-chief, he exclaimed, " Leave off action? No, d n me if I do! You know, Foley," turning to the captain I have only one eye: I have a right to be blind sometimes," and then putting the glass to the blind eye, in that mood of mind which sports with bitterness, he exclaimed, " I really do not see the signal." Presently he exclaimed, "D n the signal! keep mine for closer action flying! That's the way I answer such signals; — nail mine to the mast! " On board the Elephant the signal was never repeated; and although it did appear on board the Defiance, rear-admiral Graves would not suffer the flags to be hoisted any where but at the lee main top-sail yard-arm; whilst he kept " No. 16," the signal for close action, flying at the main top-gallant mast-head.

About this time the frigates and sloops had suffered so severely, as to be compelled to haul off from the Trekoner batteries; and while the Amazon was unavoidably exposed to their raking fire, captain Riou and several men were killed. The fire of the Danes began to slacken at 1 h. 30 m., and by 2 p. m. it had nearly ceased along the whole line astern of the Zealand, the sixth ship from the rear. Some of the smaller nelson's letter craft had gone adrift, and but few of the vessels whose flags had been struck would allow themselves to be taken possession of; for reinforcements were constantly arriving from the shore, who did not inquire whether the flag had been struck or not; many of them had never been engaged in war before, knowing nothing of its laws, and thinking only of devoting themselves to the defence of their country.

Lord Nelson was so irritated by these proceedings, that he meditated sending in fire-ships to burn the surrendered vessels: as a preliminary measure, however, his lordship wrote the celebrated letter to the Crown Prince of Denmark, wherein he says, " Vice-admiral lord Nelson has been commanded to spare Denmark when she no longer resists. The line of defence which covered her shores has struck to the british flag; but if the firing is continued on the part of Denmark, he must set on fire all the prizes he has taken, without having the power of saving the men who have so nobly defended them. The brave Danes are the brothers and should never be the enemies of Englishmen." A wafer was then brought, but Nelson ordered a candle, and sealing the letter with wax, his lordship observed, " This is no time to appear hurried and informal." This letter was immediately despatched by captain sir Frederic Thesiger, acting as aide-de-camp to lord Nelson, who found the Crown Prince at the sally-port. In the mean time, the destructive cannonade was still kept up by the Defiance, Monarch, and Ganges, who silenced the fire of several ships in the rear of the danish line; but the great crown-battery, comparatively uninjured, still continued its fire, and as 1500 men had been thrown into it from the shore, it was considered too strong to be stormed. Preparations were making to withdraw the fleet from the intricate channel while the wind continued fair, when the danish adjutant-general arrived with a flag of truce; upon sight of which the Trekoner ceased firing, and the cannonade, which had continued five hours, was brought to a close.

The message from the Crown Prince being to ascertain the precise object of lord Nelson's note, the vice-admiral replied, in writing, that as humanity was his chief consideration, he consented to stay hostilities, and was desirous that the wounded Danes should be taken on shore. It was his intention to take his prisoners out of the captured vessels, and then burn or carry off the prizes as he might afterwards determine. In conclusion, his lordship expressed his hope, that the victory he had gained would lead to a conciliation between the two countries. Sir Frederic Thesiger returned with the adjutant-general, and the latter was referred to the british commander-in-chief for a final adjustment of the terms. The cessation of hostilities was a favourable moment, and readily taken advantage of by removing the leading british ships, all of whom were much crippled in their rigging and sails. The Monarch touched upon the shoal, but the Ganges taking her a-midships, pushed her over it. The Glatton, drawing less water, passed clear, but the Defiance and Elephant grounded about a mile from the crown battery, and, notwithstanding the great exertion of their crews, remained immovable several hours; whilst the Desiree, who had gone to assist the Bellona at the opposite end of the line, became fixed on the same shoal. The Bellona was, however, soon afloat, having extricated herself by picking up the cable which the Isis had slipped, and by that means hove off the shoal. Soon after the Elephant grounded, lord Nelson followed the danish adjutant-general on board the London to attend the conference, which secured to England one of her brightest triumphs.

The danish floating batteries were mostly knocked to pieces; and it is probable that they would have been reduced to that condition in far less time than four hours, had the pilots ventured to place the ships nearer than three and four hundred yards, in which case the heavy carronades of the Ardent and Glatton would have produced their full effect. It would be impossible to make an accurate return of the loss sustained by the Danes, as the ships were frequently re-peopled from the shore; but the aggregate of killed, wounded, and prisoners has been stated at 6000 men.

The night of the 2nd of April was employed by the British in bringing away the captured vessels, and in floating the grounded ships. The generality of the prizes were so defective and worthless, that the whole, with the exception of the Holstein of 60 guns, were, destroyed. On the 9th an armistice was agreed upon, which was to continue for fourteen weeks, and Denmark engaged to suspend all proceedings under the armed neutrality which she had entered into with Sweden and Russia.

The thanks of Parliament were voted to the officers, seamen, and marines in the fleet for the gallantry displayed before Copenhagen on the 2nd of April. Three commanders were promoted to post rank; the senior lieutenants of each ship engaged also gained a step, and the rank of brevet-major was conferred on captain James Lambrecht, the senior officer of marines in the squadron. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1801. Friday 3rd April. HMS Trent at Havre De Grace. The bravery of Lieutenant Tait of the Marines (This officer had been thought to have been the original of Sir Walter Scott’s ‘Captain Clutterbuck’.

1801. Friday 3rd April. The 36-gun frigate Trent, captain sir Edward Hamilton, while lying at anchor off the Isle of Brehat, at daylight discovered a ship with a cutter and lugger, steering towards Plampoul. The boats of the frigate were immediately despatched after the strangers, under the orders of lieutenant George Chamberlayne, with the other officers of the frigate. Several boats from the shore took the ship in tow, but on the approach of the British they cast her off and prepared to defend themselves. After a sharp conflict the french lugger and boats were driven on the rocks, and although protected by five batteries, the ship, which was a captured english vessel, was boarded and brought away. Lieutenant Taite of the marines unfortunately lost a leg upon this occasion; which accident, with 2 seamen killed, was the extent of the loss sustained by the British.

After Buonaparte had concluded the treaty of Luneville on the 9th of February with the emperor of Germany, the first consul seemed to entertain serious hopes of landing his victorious legions on the shores of Britain. The port of Boulogne was to be the central rendezvous of the grand flotilla; and in the month of July nine divisions of gun-vessels, with nine battalions of troops, besides artillery, were ordered to assemble. These preparations spread considerable alarm on the coast of England and caused corresponding preparations for the defensive to be made by the british government. Vice-admiral lord Nelson was appointed to the chief command from Orfordness to Beachy Head; and having his flag on board the 32-gun frigate Medusa, he sailed from the Downs with about thirty other vessels, and on the 4th of August bombarded the port of Boulogne.

On the night of the 15th the boats of the squadron, in four divisions, accompanied by several mortar-boats, made an attack on the french flotilla; but owing to the darkness of the night and the uncertainty of the tide, the attacking party separated. The first division, under captain Somerville, was carried considerably to the eastward of Boulogne bay; and finding it impracticable to reach the flotilla in the order prescribed, the boats were ordered to cast each other off, and make the best of their way towards the enemy. A little before day-break on the 1 6th, some of the leading boats attacked a brig lying close to the pier-head, and after a sharp conflict carried her; but owing to the vessel being secured with a chain, and the heavy fire of grape and musketry from the shore and four armed vessels within pistol-shot, they were compelled to abandon their prize. The boats now retreated with a loss of 18 killed and 55 wounded; among the latter was captain George Young of the marines. The other three divisions attacked with equal determi nation, but were alike unsuccessful, and their combined loss amounted to 44 men killed and 71 wounded; making a total in this gallant enterprise of 62 men killed and 126 wounded. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1801. Wednesday 15th April. The British cut the canal of Alexandria and let the waters of Madieh into the basin of the ancient lake Mareotis; which for ages past had been dry, except that a considerable portion of it, at certain seasons especially, was impassable, owing to the swampy nature of its bed. Although the first rush of water from its volume and impetuosity was awfully grand, some time elapsed before the whole area of the lake became covered. When this was accomplished, the troops under general Menou, amounting to about 6000 men, became shut up in Alexandria, and separated from the 4000 under general Lagrange, entrenched at El- Aft, and the 5000 under general Belliard in garrison at Cairo. Leaving major-general Coote in command of the army before Alexandria, major-general Hutchinson arrived at Rosetta on the 26th of April, to direct in person the operations against the French in the interior of the country; and on the 5th of May the major-general, with the combined British and Turks, in number about 8000, advanced towards the position of general Lagrange at El-Aft, accompanied by the gun-boats on the river, under the command of captain James Stevenson. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1801. Thursday 16th April. St. Eustatius, W. Indies, seized.

1801. Thursday 7th May. The french general abandoned El-Aft and retreated towards Rahmineh, which place was attacked by the gun-boats under captain Curry on the 9th, in which affair the British sustained a loss of lieutenant Hobbes and 3 seamen killed, and 7 wounded. During the night the enemy retreated towards Cairo, leaving in the fort 110 sick and wounded. The possession of this important post effectually cut off all communication between Alexandria and the interior of Egypt. Owing to various delays, the allied forces did not arrive at Embaeth, a village distant about a mile and half from the fortress of Giseh, until the 20th of June. On the 22nd, while preparations were making to besiege Cairo, general Belliard sent a flag of truce to lieutenant-general Hutchinson, offering to capitulate upon honourable terms: these were signed by the respective parties on the 27th, stipulating that the french troops, amounting to 8000 effective, 1000 sick, and about 500 convalescent, should be conveyed to a port in France.

Whilst these operations were going forward, a force of 6000 men was approaching from Bombay, under the command of major-general Baird, which landed in Kossei'r bay on the 9th and 14th of May. Between the 10th and 15th of June, the two divisions of this army commenced their march across the desert by the valley of Kuittah, and on the 30th arrived at Kenneh, on the banks of the Nile; but owing to the difficulty in procuring boats to descend the river, the major-general did not effect a junction with the army under lieutenant-general Hutchinson until several days after the surrender of Cairo. A detachment of 320 men, under lieutenant-colonel Lloyd of the 86th regiment, which marched across the desert, a distance of above eighty miles, reached Cairo on the 12th, after a painful and distressing journey, in which 3 officers and 20 men perished. The last division of the french troops, taken prisoners at Cairo and other places, amounting to nearly 13,500 men, having by the 10th of August sailed from the bay of Aboukir, immediate measures were adopted for the reduction of Alexandria, which was the last strong-hold of the French in Egypt. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1801. Saturday 16th May. About 5000 troops, under major general Eyre Coote, embarked on lake Mareotis, escorted by the flotilla of gun-boats under captain Stevenson; and having proceeded to a position westward of the town of Alexandria, disembarked early on the morning of the 17th without opposition; previous to which the French set fire to their flotilla of eighteen gun-boats, stationed opposite to Pompey's pillar, and protected by a battery of 3 long eighteen-pounders. After sustaining a combined naval and military attack, the island of Marabou capitulated on the 21st, and on the same evening a small squadron of the allies entered the harbour; soon after which the French sank several merchant vessels to impede the further progress of the British to the eastward, having previously moved their two 64-gun ships and corvettes close up to the town.

Four batteries on each side of the town opened upon the entrenched camp of the French on the morning of the 26th and being pressed on all sides, general Menou, on the evening of the 27th, sent an aide-de-camp to lieutenant-general Hutchinson requesting three days' armistice, in order to prepare a capitulation : this proposal was acceded to, and on the 2nd of September the city of Alexandria surrendered. The garrison, consisting of 8000 soldiers and 1300 sailors, were to be conveyed to France at british expense, as had already been the case with the garrison of Cairo. This concluding operation of the campaign was effected with a loss of 13 killed and 113 wounded and to the british navy, in the attack on Marabou, of 2 killed and 2 wounded: making the total loss on the part of the British in the egyptian campaign, of 330 killed, 1872 wounded, and 39 missing that of the French, commencing at the disembarkation of the british troops in Aboukir bay, between 3000 and 4000 men in killed alone.

The marines, as constituting a material proportion of the strength of lord Keith's fleet, were continued on the coast, and their duties were confined to the blockade of Alexandria, where they might be ready to re-embark in case of emergency. They were withdrawn from the defence of Aboukir and remained attached to the brigade of major-general Coote until the 5th of August, when, at the desire of lord Keith, they re-embarked on board their respective ships. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1801. Sunday 5th July. The following testimonials bespeak the exemplary conduct of the battalion in such nattering terms, that no comment, can enhance their merit, and we therefore subjoin the official report
" Foudroyant, Bay of Aboukir, 5th July 1801.
I have had much satisfaction in receiving the commands of the lords commissioners of the Admiralty to make known to you their lordships' approbation of your conduct, and that of the officers, non-commissioned officers, and privates of the marine battalion, landed from the ships in the squadron to co-operate with the army on the coast of Egypt ; and I have to request that you will, with the permission of major-general Coote, communicate the approbation which their lordships have been pleased to express to the officers and men serving under your command.
I have the honour to be, sir,
Your very obedient humble servant,
" Lieut.-col. Smith, (Signed) KEITH."
Previous to their embarkation, major-general Coote issued the following: —
" Camp, near Alexandria, 3rd August 1801.
" At the request of admiral lord Keith, it is lieutenant-general sir John Hely Hutchinson's directions that the battalion of marines, under your command, is to hold itself in readiness to return on board their respective ships. I cannot, however, suffer you to leave the division of the army, without assuring you how perfectly satisfied I am with the attention you have always paid to the marines. The good conduct of your corps whilst under my orders does them the greatest credit, and I beg you will be so obliging as to signify the same both to your officers and men.
I have the honour to be, &c.
" Lieut -col. Smith, EYRE COOTE."
The battalion having done duty during some time in the first brigade under major-general Finch, that officer thus expressed his sentiments —
"Brigade Orders, August 5th, 1801.
I have the honour to be, &c.
" Lieut -col. Smith, EYRE COOTE."
The battalion having done duty during some time in the first brigade under major-general Finch, that officer thus expressed his sentiments:
"Brigade Orders, August 5th, 1801.
" Major-general Finch, in taking leave of lieutenant-colonel Smith and the marines under his command, requests him to accept his warmest thanks for the order, regularity, zeal, and attention that have uniformly marked their conduct during the period he had the honour of commanding the first brigade; and he shall be happy, on all occasions, to bear testimony to their merit in the correct performance of their duty in every respect, which has come under his observation." (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1801. Monday 6th July. The Battle of Algeciras Bay refers to two separate battles during July 1801 between an allied French-Spanish fleet and the British near Gibraltar. The French drove off an attack by the larger British fleet and captured one of their ships of the line. The battle of Algezitas is remembered by the Heroism of Lieutenant J.D. Williams of the HMS Hannibal.

1801. Wednesday 8th July. The second Battle of Algeciras Bay in which the British pursued the Franco Spanish fleet, destroying two Spanish ships and capturing one French ship. The British squadron suffered various degrees of damage and lost 121 men killed and 240 wounded. While the French lost 306 killed, including Captains Laindet Lalonde and Moncousu, and 280 wounded.

The British fleet consisted of six ships of the line:

HMS Caesar 80 guns (flag of Rear-Adm. James Saumarez, with Captain Jahleel Brenton).

HMS Pompee 74 guns (Captain Charles Stirling).

HMS Spencer 74 guns (Captain Henry D’Esterre Darby).

HMS Venerable 74 guns (Captain Samuel Hood).

HMS Hannibal 74 guns (Captain Solomon Ferris).

HMS Audacious 74 guns (Captain Shuldham Peard).

The French squadron consisted of:

Formidable 80 guns (flag of Rear-Adm. Linois, with Captain Laindet Lalonde †).

Indomptable 80 guns (Captain Moncousu).

Desaix 74 guns (Captain Jean-Anne Christy de la Pallière).

Muiron 40 guns (Captain Martinencq).

The Spanish element of the Franco-Spanish squadron consisted of:

Real Carlos 112 guns (Captain Don J. Esquerra).

San Hermenegildo 112 guns (Captain Don J. Emparran).

San Fernando 94 guns (Captain Don J. Malina).

Argonauta guns 80 (Captain Don. J. Herrera).

San Agustín 74 guns (Captain Don. R. Topete).

San Sabina 44 guns (frigate carrying the flag of both Vice-Adm. Moreno and Rear Admiral Linois).

1801. Wednesday 3rd August. The 38-gun frigate Pomone, captain E. L. Gower, having outsailed the three other frigates with which she was cruising off Elba, at 8h. 10 m. p.m., after the interchange of a few shot from their chase guns, and a resistance of about ten minutes duration, captured the french 40-gun frigate Carrere. The Pomone had 2 men killed; lieutenant Charles Douglas of the marines lost a leg, and 2 seamen were wounded. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1801. Saturday 15th August – 16th August. The Attack on the Boulogne Flotilla.

1801. Tuesday 18th - 21st August. Marabou Island surrendered. (Naval Brigade Ashore).

1801. Wednesday 19th April. Sibylle captured Chiffonne.

1801. Wednesday 6th May. Speedy captured Gamo.

1801. Monday 25th May. Lieutenant Wilson of the marines assisted in the boats of the 28-gun frigate Mercury, under the orders of lieutenant William Mather, in attacking the late british bombvessel Bull-dog, lying moored off the mole of Ancona. She was boarded, and the cables cut, when the alarm having spread, a heavy fire was opened upon the British of musketry and cannon. A favourable light breeze enabled the prize to gain sufficient offing as to be without the reach of the batteries, when it unfortunately fell calm; and the current carrying the captured vessel close to the shore, she was attacked by the gun-boats, and lieutenant Mather was reluctantly compelled to abandon his prize, with the loss of 2 killed, and 4 wounded. Lieutenant Wilson was again employed in the boats in the attack of a pirate tartan, mounting 8 guns, and a crew of 60 men, lying among the rocks of the small islands of Tremiti, in the gulf of Venice. Notwithstanding the boats were exposed to a sharp fire of cannon and musketry, both from the vessel and from a four-pounder upon an eminence, they gallantly rowed and while lieutenant Mather boarded the vessel, lieutenant Wilson landed with the marines, and drove the enemy from the hill, taking several prisoners. The service being fully accomplished, the marines re-embarked, and the tartan was brought out without any loss on the part of the British. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1801. Tuesday 9th June. Kangaroo and Speedy destroyed gunboats and consorts.

1801. Wednesday June 24. Swiftsure captured by Dix Aout and consorts.

1801. Sunday 28th June. Boats of Mercury and Corso captured Tigre.

1801. Friday 3rd July. Speedy captured by French squadron.

1801. Monday 6th July. Action on Algeciras. Loss of Hannibal.

1801. Sunday 12th July. Saumarez's action off Gibraltar.

1801. Tuesday 21st July. Cutting out of Chevrette.

1801. Tuesday 21st July. Pasley engaged a 22 gun xebec.

1801. Friday 31st July. Sylph engaged a French frigate.

1801. July. The Beaulieu, Doris, and Uranie frigates were lying at anchor about 3 miles to the south-south-east of St. Matthew's light-house, and in full view of the combined fleet of France and Spain, when the french 20-gun ship-corvette Chevrette was discovered also at anchor under some batteries in Camaret bay. It was resolved to make an attempt to cut her out from this position of apparent security; accordingly, on the night of the 20th the boats of the Beaulieu and Doris, manned entirely by volunteers, and placed under the orders of lieutenant Woodley Losack of the Ville de Paris, proceeded on this enterprise. From the circumstance of the boats not pulling alike, the detachments separated, and some returned to their ships; whilst the remainder, having reached the entrance of the bay of Camaret, lay upon their oars until daylight on the 21st, and disappointed in not having been supported by their companions, they pulled back to the frigates. As they had been discovered by the Chevrette as well as from the shore, so much of the plan as contemplated a surprise was defeated; consequently, the corvette on the following morning got under weigh, and having run about a mile and a half further up the bay, she was moored close under some heavy batteries. The Chevrette then embarked a detachment of soldiers, sufficient to augment her number of men to 339, and made the most careful preparation to repel an attack; bringing the arms and ammunition upon deck and loading the guns with grape and canister. Having thus profited by the discovery of the morning, the corvette, in defiance, displayed a large french ensign over the english colours. This insulting bravado, while it tended to inspire the British with increased ardour to renew the attack, made them more determined to reverse the position of the national flags.

At about 9 h. 30 m. p. m. the boats of the three frigates, joined by two from the Robust, numbering altogether fifteen boats, containing 280 officers and men, still under the command of lieutenant Losack, proceeded again to the attack of the Chevrette. Shortly after their departure, the division of six boats under that officer went in chase of a boat supposed to be from the shore. The remainder lay on their oars, awaiting the return of the commanding officer; and after some time had elapsed, lieutenant Keith Maxwell of the Beaulieu, the next officer in command, considering that they had at least six miles to pull, and that the night was far advanced, resolved, notwithstanding that his force was now reduced to 180 men, to proceed without further delay. He then gave orders, that whilst one party was engaged in disarming the enemy on deck, some of the smartest topmen of the Beaulieu should fight their way aloft and loose the sails; others to cut the cable, and a quartermaster was named, who was to take charge of the helm of the corvette.

It was about 1 p. m. on the 22nd when the boats arrived in sight of the Chevrette; who, after hailing, opened a heavy fire of musketry and grape, and presently there was a loud roll of musketry from the shore. In face of this determined preparation, the boats dashed nobly on towards the ship: those of the Beaulieu, under lieutenants Maxwell and James Pasley, with lieutenant James Sinclair of the marines, boarded on the starboard bow and quarter; those of the Uranie under lieutenant Martin Neville, one of the Robust's under midshipman Robert Warren, and one of the Doris's under lieutenant Walter Burke, on the larboard bow. The French obstinately opposed the assailants, and in their turn boarded the boats; whilst in their efforts to overcome this formidable opposition, many of the British lost their fire-arms, and with their swords only succeeded in gaining a footing on the enemy's deck. Those who had been selected for going aloft, fought their way to their respective stations, and although some were killed and wounded, the remainder gained the corvette's yards ; and here, finding the foot ropes strapped up, the intrepid fellows had to scramble out upon their hands and knees : yet so quickly was this part of the service performed, that in less than three minutes after the boats got alongside, and in a conflict against numbers more than trebly superior, the three top-sails and courses were loosened, and the cable having been cut at the same time, the shi casted as a light breeze sprang up from off the land, and the Chevrette began drifting out of the bay. The Frenchmen perceiving their sails fall, and the ship under way, were seized with astonishment and consternation: some leaped overboard, whilst others threw away their arms, and ran down the hatchways. The British had now possession of the upper deck, but those of the corvette's crew who had fled below, still maintained a smart fire of musketry; nevertheless, they were soon overpowered, and compelled to submit. The batteries continued to fire at the ship, and just as she cleared the point it fell calm, and she became exposed to a shower of shot and shell; but a light breeze from the north-east soon drove her out of their range. About this time some boats were seen approaching from the direction of Brest; and lieutenant Maxwell, suspecting them to be enemies, was preparing for a new conflict, when the strangers were recognised as the division under lieutenant Losack, to which officer Mr. Maxwell resigned the command.

This gallant and unequalled exploit was performed in the presence of the combined fleet of France and Spain, by an officer on his own judgment and responsibility; and whose intrepidity and presence of mind, seconded by the wonderful exertions of the officers and men under his command, succeeded in effecting an enterprise, which, by those who reflect upon its peculiar circumstances, will ever be regarded with admiration and astonishment. Lieutenant of marines James Sinclair, Mr. Robert Warren, midshipman, 7 seamen, and 2 marines were killed; lieutenants Martin Neville and Walter Burke (the latter mortally), 3 midshipmen, Edward Crofton, Edward Byrn, and Robert Finnis, 42 seamen, and 9 marines wounded; and 1 marine drowned in the Beaulieu's barge, which was sunk by the enemy's shot.
Total, — 1 1 killed, 57 wounded, and 1 drowned.

The Chevrette had her captain, 2 lieutenants, 3 midshipmen, 1 lieutenant of infantry, and 85 men killed; 1 lieutenant, 4 midshipmen, and 57 seamen and soldiers wounded. Total, — 92 killed, and 62 wounded. Lieutenants Rose and Sinclair of the marines were both volunteers in this enterprise, and the latter was killed in the act. of defending Mr. Crofton, midshipman of the Doris, who, in his efforts to get on board the corvette, was wounded in two places. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1801. Monday 3rd August. Pomone captured Carriere.

1801. Monday 10th August. Boats of Atalante captured Eveilie.

1801. Thursday 20th August. During the night the boats of the Fisgard, Diamond, and Boadicea frigates, under the orders of lieutenant Philip Pipon, boarded and carried the Spanish ship Neptune of 20 guns, a gun-boat mounting a long twenty-four pounder, and a merchant ship, all moored within the strong batteries of Corunna, and within pistol-shot of the shore. The three vessels were brought out without sustaining the slightest loss. Lieutenant Mark Anthony Gerrard of the marines was a volunteer in this gallant affair.

Lieutenant Gerrard was so much esteemed by his shipmates in the Fisgard, with whom he had so frequently acquitted himself with valour and honour, that a gratifying testimony was conferred upon him by his gallant companions. It consisted of a handsome sabre and belt, with the following inscription: —
" This sabre and belt are presented to first-lieutenant Gerrard of the marines, by those who served with him on board his Majesty's ship Fisgard, in memory of the action with L'lmmortatite, on the 20th of October 1798; the boarding expeditions at the Saintes, Penmarcks, Quimper, Noirmoutier, St. Matthew, St Andero, and Corunna, in which he served as a volunteer, and bore so distinguished a part."

This gallant officer was rewarded by the adjutancy at the Plymouth division, where he was highly respected and esteemed by his brother-officers. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1801. Friday 21st August. Cutting-out operations at Etaples.

1801. August. Nelson's operations at Boulogne.

1801. Wednesday 2nd September. Alexandria surrendered. (Naval Brigade Ashore).

1801. Wednesday 2nd September. Minerve and Pomone took Success and destroyed Bravoure.

1801. Wednesday 2nd September. The french frigates Bravoure and Succes, which had sailed from Leghorn on the 31st of August, were discovered by the british frigates Minerve, Pomone, and Phoenix, then lying in the Piombino channel. After a pursuit of some hours, the Succes ran aground on the shore of Vada, and was taken possession of by the Pomone; whilst the Bravoure grounded under the battery of Antignano and was totally wrecked.

Shortly after the disposal of these frigates, which had hitherto created great annoyance to the garrison of Porto-Ferrajo, lieutenant-colonel George Airey, commanding the british troops in that fortress, applied to rear-admiral sir J. B. Warren for the assistance of the marines of the squadron under his command to attack some of the french batteries, and those especially which shut up the port. Immediate preparation was made for the active co-operation of the squadron, consisting of the Renown, Gibraltar, Dragon, Alexander, Genereux, and Stately, of the line, with Pomone and Pearl frigates, and Vincejo brig.

On the 13th at day-break the Dragon and Genereux, to create a diversion, opened a fire upon the round tower of Marciana; and on the 14th, a little before daylight, 449 marines, under the following officers, were landed: —
Captains: Robert Johnstone, John Richardson, and Francis Williams. Lieutenants: James Fischatt, Joseph Coombs, John Clarke, Thomas M'Gill, Michael Burton, David Weir, William Ravenscroft, David Holt, W. D. Jervis, Beddingford Pagedon, Frederick William Mann, John Davidson, and George Peebles.

This battalion, in conjunction with 200 seamen and a party of Tuscans, amounting in the whole to about 1000 men, were formed into two divisions, under the direction of captain J. C. White of the Renown. After a successful attack upon the batteries, which were destroyed, and taking 55 prisoners, including three captains and two subalterns, the allied force was opposed to very superior numbers, and compelled to retire with a loss of 32 men killed, 61 wounded, and 105 missing. Lieutenant Clarke of the marines was wounded and made prisoner. Captain James Weir commanded a Maltese corps and distinguished himself on this occasion; and he again signalized himself in a subsequent sortie on the night of the 10th of October. The garrison continued to defend itself until the treaty of Amiens produced a cessation of hostilities. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1801. Wednesday 2nd - 6th September. Victor destroyed a French corvette.

1801. Tuesday 8th September. Sylph engaged Artemise.

1801. Sunday 13th September. Lark captured Esperanta.

1801. Sunday 13th September. Attack on Porto Ferrajo.

1801. Monday 14th September – 25th March 1802. The defence of Porto Ferrajo. Lieutenant Lawrence and the detachment of HMS Pearl served with the garrison. “This little force by its constancy and courage, ever set the best of examples, and its men were always foremost on service, and stood their posts and their guns when the Tuscan and other foreign troops gave away. They were most useful in preparing shells, mounting and transporting cannon and in repairing their carriages, as well as in construction works. Their knowledge of gunnery, and their ambition to gain honour for their Corps and themselves induced them to live in their batteries, and the little sleep they got was alongside their cannon.” Colonel Airey who commanded the British garrison having applied to Admiral Sir J. Warren for his co-operation in an attack upon some French batteries which shut up the port, 449 Marines under Captain John Richardson and a division of 240 seamen were landed just after day break on 14th September. They were joined by a detachment of Swiss troops and a party of Tuscans, The Maltese Corps raised and Commanded by Major Weir of the Marines was also engaged on this occasion. At the beginning of the attack on the batteries on the right of the Bay, Captain Long RN was killed while gallantly leading his men. “A suspension of arms was maintained while his body was borne with full military honours to the grave.” After this remarkable pause in hostilities, Lieutenant Campbell of the Marines instantly charged, and drove the French into a narrow pass, where, his further advance was checked by the arrival of French reinforcements, and he had to fall back on the garrison. Meanwhile on the other side of the bay several of the batteries were destroyed by the British together with a large quantity of ammunition, after which the arrival of a very superior force of the enemy compelled a retreat to the boats. (sic)

1801. Thursday 2nd October preliminary articles of peace were signed in London by lord Hawkesbury, the secretary of state Fore the foreign affairs, on the part of Great Britain, and by citizen Louis Guillaume Otto, commissary for the exchange of prisoners in England, on the part of France. On the 10th the egotiations were duly exchanged, and on the 12th a proclamation was issued by his britannic Majesty, ordering a cessation of arms. According to the preliminary articles, five months from the date of the exchange of ratifications was the longest period that hostilities could legally be continued in the most distant part of the globe. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1801. Saturday 10th October. The Peace article was eventually signed at Downing Street on 10th October.

1801. Wednesday 28th October. Pasley captured Rosario.

1801. 1st December. A mutiny broke out on board a squadron in Bantry Bay that continued until the 11th December. The Marines remained firm to their allegiance, and it is probable that their zealous and loyal conduct deterred the seamen from further resistance of the Commands to their officers. Six of the ring leaders were executed on the 5th January 1802, and five on the 19th of the same month.

The following letters are from the marines of two ships of the squadron —
" Princess Royal, Beerhaven, \2th December,1801.
We, the non-commissioned officers and privates serving as marines of a detachment under your command on board this ship, have heard with pleasure of the gallant conduct of our brother-soldiers on board his Majesty's ship Temeraire; and there fore beg leave to express, alike with them, our determination to oppose, with all our might and power, all unlawful combinations, and our readiness to obey our officers night or day.
(Signed by the whole party).
" To Lieut- Colonel Tench."
"Resolution, Bantry Bay, 15th December 1801.
I hope you will pardon the liberty we take in addressing you, but as we understand that some ships' companies have disobeyed the just commands of their superior officers, and knowing as we do the dreadful consequences that formerly at tended same practices, for our parts we abhor the idea ; and we hope you will inform captain Gardner, likewise the admiral, that it is our firm resolution to support and maintain our officers in every thing which they may think proper, and which is best calculated to promote the interests of our king and country.

I have the honour to subscribe myself, and in behalf of the detachment of marines, your most obedient servant,
" Captain Forshall, WILLIAM HEANS,
Marine forces.
General Orders.
"The lords of the Admiralty having expressed their high satisfaction of the good conduct of the marines of several of the ships under my command, with those at Beerhaven, in declaring their abhorrence of the mutinous proceedings which had lately taken place at that anchorage, and of their having come forward upon that occasion, so much to the honour of their corps and the interest of their country ; I am to desire that you will be pleased to communicate the same to them, and assure them that 1 feel highly gratified on the present occasion.
" To Vice-admiral Sir A. Mitchell,
" Spitkead, 29th December 1801.
" It is my directions to the captains of his Majesty's ships Windsor Castle, Princess Royal, Malta, Glory, Resolution, and Vengeance, under my orders, to communicate to the marines serving on board the respective ships under their command the above letter from the commander-in-chief: and I feel equally happy that their good conduct has merited such a mark of approbation from him, and the lords commissioners of the Admiralty- A. MITCHELL." (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1801 - 1815. Royal Marines. After the Act of Union was passed in 1801, which incorporated Ireland into the United Kingdom, there was an influx of Irish volunteers. After 1805 nearly ten percent of each company were comprised of foreigners, mainly Maltese, German, Spanish and Portuguese. Each company on paper was to comprise 1 captain, 2 first lieutenants, 2 second lieutenants, 8 sergeants, 8 corporals, 6 drummers and 140 privates. Each Marine Division also had a grenadier and a light company, but they were abolished in 1804. With disease, shortages and battle-caused deaths, it was highly unlikely that the paper figures were ever met. The marine companies were dispersed throughout the fleet and where needed on land. The marines had their uniforms supplied by the Navy Board, but their dress was that of the infantry. They wore the red coat, with white collar and cuffs. Plumes were the standard colours, white-over-red for battalion companies, green for the light and white for the grenadiers. Officers wore scarlet coats, with white lace and white gloves. Gorgets, worn at the throat, were purely decorative horseshoe shaped pieces of metal that harked back to the days when officers had worn armour like medieval knights. Officer’s carried straight bladed cutlasses with a thirty-two inch blade, a pistol and most commonly a dirk. The marine privates were armed with the Sea Service Brown Bess muskets and the sergeants carried halberds, and then later spontoons or half-pikes.
The marines were nicknamed by the sailors ‘lobsters’ because of the red woollen coat, and ‘bootnecks’, a semi-derogatory term derived from the dark leather 'stock' worn round the neck inside the collar which forced a soldier to keep his head up. "Take my sea boots off your neck”, was a saying to imply the marines were wearing a piece of leather cut from the sailor's footwear.
In 1802, largely at the recommendation of Admiral John Jervis, 1st Earl of St Vincent, the marines were re-titled ‘Royal Marines’ by King George III for services to their country: "In order to mark his approbation of the very meritorious conduct of the Marines during the late war, His Majesty has been graciously pleased to direct that in future the corps shall be called the Royal Marines.”The white facings (collars and cuffs) were given a royal makeover, changing to ‘Royal Blue’. The bicorn was replaced by the black ‘round-hat’ made of felt, but the red coat was retained.

1802. Saturday 27th March. The definitive treaty was signed at Amiens, which stipulated the restoration to France of all the colonies taken from her, except Trinidad and Ceylon. Egypt was restored to the Porte the islands of Malta, Goza, and Comino were to be restored to the order of Jerusalem, as before the war; and the british troops were to quit those islands within three months after the exchange of the ratification. The french troops were to evacuate Naples and the roman territory; and the British, in like manner, to quit Ferrajo, as well as all the islands in the Mediterranean and Adriatic. The Cape of Good Hope and various other important colonies were restored to Holland; and Denmark, as well as Sweden, regained their foreign possessions.
The distinguished services of the marines, and their unshaken loyalty, had frequently obtained for them the public expression of their country's gratitude; but no particular mark of the royal favour was extended to the corps, until the 29th of April 1802, when the following gratifying communication was conveyed to their commandant by the earl of St. Vincent: —
"Admiralty Office, 29th April 1802.
The earl of St. Vincent having signified to my lords commissioners of the Admiralty, that his Majesty, in order to mark his royal approbation of the very meritorious conduct of the corps of marines during the late war, has been graciously pleased to direct that in future the corps shall be styled the Royal Marines.

I have great satisfaction in obeying their lordships' commands to communicate this intelligence to you; and in offering their lordships' congratulations on this testimony of the opinion his Majesty entertains of the very distinguished services of that part of his forces to which you belong.
I am, sir, &c. &c.
(Signed) EVAN NEPEAN."
" Lieutenant-general Sonter Johnstone,
Commandant of the Marines."
The unsettled state of affairs in Europe induced the british government to keep up a large peace establishment, and consequently the marines retained 100 companies, making a total force of 12,119 men. Six field-officers, eight captains, one captain-lieutenant, three first-lieutenants, and three second-lieutenants, were allowed to retire; and the retired establishment was made an open list.
The detachment of marines under the command of captain Johnstone, serving on board the 80-gun ship Gibraltar in the Mediterranean, was distinguished for its firmness in suppressing a mutiny. Two of the ringleaders were hung by sentence of a court-martial.
The following order was issued by the commander-in-chief: —
"Kent, Oristagni Bay, 4th November 1802.
" Memorandum. — Whereas, it appears in the minutes of the late court-martial on the mutineers of the Gibraltar, that the detachment of marines serving on board that ship bore no part in the disgraceful proceedings of the 6th of October last ; but, much to the credit of the officers and themselves, maintained the character of the loyal and respectable corps to which they belong, by a steady adherence to their duty ; the rear-admiral takes this public method of expressing his approbation of their good and soldier-like conduct, and requests captain Johnstone to accept his thanks.

"To the respective Captains." A similar instance of insubordination occurred on board the 74-gun ship Excellent, in the West Indies, which was subdued by the firmness and discipline of the marines, whose fidelity obtained the following commendation from commodore Hood "Blenheim, Carlisle Bay, Barbadoes,30th Dec. 1802. " Memorandum. — The commander-in-chief had flattered himself in the hope, that all those ill-disposed acts of mutinous conduct were at an end in the royal navy, and that the seamen would endeavour to heighten their characters in the eyes of the rest of his Majesty's subjects but he trusts the punishment he has been obliged to order to be carried into execution on those unfortunate men, may be sufficient example to deter a few evilminded persons from disturbing the repose and good order amongst the seamen in future.

" The commander-in-chief, (as well as the members of the court-martial), are highly sensible of the active exertions of the officers of his Majesty's ship Excellent in quelling the late mutiny on board her, and also the officers, non-commissioned officers, and private marines belonging to the said ship; who by their firmness in resisting the attempt to seduce them from their duty, and in opposing men in actual mutiny, have increased, if possible, the high character the corps has so justly acquired ; and he begs to assure the whole of them, they have his best thanks, and he will not fail to represent their meritorious conduct to the lords commissioners of the Admiralty.
(Signed) SAMUEL HOOD."
" To Captain Maxwell,
Blenheim." (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1802. April. Mutiny of the West India Regiment at Dominica. At which the Marines played a large part in putting it down.

1802. Friday 9th April. The 8th West India Regiment made up of free black and runaway slave members mutinied, killing some officers and non-commissioned officers. The mutiny was suppressed after nearly 100 of the mutineers were killed. In the subsequent investigation, it was discovered that the black soldiers had been severely abused, and Colonel Johnstone their commander was blamed for the mutiny and suspended from duty.

1802. Saturday 10th April. A detachment of 40 men, under lieutenant O'Neal, from the 74-gun ship Magnificent, disembarked on the 10th of April on the island of Dominica, to assist in quelling an insurrection in the 8th West India regiment. This small party took post on a hill, and although opposed by a body of above 400 men, they maintained their position until reinforced by 25 men, under lieutenants Lambert and Hawkins; and then, with the assistance of some colonial militia, they succeeded in rescuing several officers from the hands of the mutineers. On the following day the marines marched to Grand-Ance and uniting with detachments of the Royal Scotch and 68th regiments, they entered the fort of Sirley on the 13th, and forming in front of the black corps, the latter, on being desired, grounded their arms; but when commanded to advance, they resumed their arms, which they instantly discharged. The detachment returned the fire, and then drove the mutineers with the bayonet, who, retreating up the Outer Cabaret, became exposed to a discharge of grape from the Magnificent. On the return of the detachment to Martinique, they received the thanks of general Johnstone, and of the presidency of Dominique. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1802. Thursday 29th April. The Marines were given the title of Royal Marines by King George III on the recommendation of the Admiral of the Fleet John Jervis, Earl of St Vincent Admiralty Office. “His Majesty has been graciously pleased to signify His Commands that, in consideration of the very rigorous services of the Marines during the late War, the Corps shall in future be styled The Royal’ Marines by Command of their Lordships. (Signed) Evan Nepean.” On acquiring the title of Royal, the facings of the Marines, which had been white, were changed to Blue as in other Royal Corps of Infantry. The Laurel was also authorised to be borne as a testimony of the gallantry of the Marines at the siege of Belle-Isle in the year 1761, and is encircled about the figure of the Globe on the Colours.

1802. Monday 28th June. The following flattering communication from lord Hutchinson, was sent to lieutenant-colonel Smith after his return to England: —
" Jermyn-street, 28th June 1802.
Your sudden departure from Egypt rendered it impossible for me to desire that you would communicate my thanks to the marines who served under your command during the campaign. May I now beg that you will assure the officers and men how highly sensible 1 am of their meritorious service? and of the zeal and exertion which ever marked their conduct. The order and discipline preserved by the battalion does great credit to your military character and is equally honourable to the respectable corps which you had the good fortune to command.
I have the honour to be, &c.
" Lieut.-col. Smith, HUTCHINSON,
Royal Marines." major-general."
The medals conferred by the Grand Signior upon every officer of the army, commemorative of their services during the egyptian campaign, were, from some omission, withheld from the marines ; but in consequence of a representation from lord Keith to the earl of Elgin, at that time the british ambassador at the ottoman Porte, these honourable marks of distinction were conveyed to sir Richard Bickerton, commanding the british naval forces at Malta, who transmitted them with the following letter : —
"Kent, at Malta, March 18M, 1803.
I have the honour of forwarding to you some turkish medals, to be distributed among the officers of marines who served on shore, and in the squadron employed in the blockade of Alexandria, during the egyptian campaign.
The accompanying letter and list will explain everything; it therefore only remains for me to add, that I feel a pleasure in having been made a medium in conveying what may be acceptable to a small part of your corps; and I should be much more gratified if it was in my power to congratulate you on the acquisition of more substantial advantages for the whole, being every day more fully convinced of its services and utility.
I have the honour to be, sir,
" Lieut.-col. Smith, &c. &c. &c.
Royal Marines." R. BICKERTON."
On the 13th of June rear-admiral Linois, with the 80-gun ships Formidable and Indomptable, Desaix 74, and Muiion frigate, put to sea from Toulon, intending to proceed to Cadiz; but on learning that a superior force blockaded that port, the rear-admiral, at 5 p. m. on the 4th of July, anchored his squadron in front of the town of Algesiras. On the 5th rear-admiral sir James Saumarez, commanding the british squadron before Cadiz, having been apprized of the appearance of the french ships off the rock of Gibraltar, immediately repaired in quest of them; and at 7 a.m. on the 6th, the Venerable, on opening Cabrita point, discovered the french squadron, then warping further in shore to get under the protection of the batteries that defended the road, and moored in line a-head thus : the Formidable, nearly abreast of the San-Jago battery, mounting 5 long eigh teen-pounders ; the Desaix about 500 yards astern, and to the southward of the flag-ship; and the Indomptable about the same distance astern of the Desaix : the Muiron took her station a little within, and to the northward of the Isla-Verda, whilst fourteen heavy guns were placed in suitable situations to support the ships of the line.
At 8 a. m. the Venerable lay becalmed at a considerable distance on the starboard bow of the Pompee, and shortly afterwards the latter, followed by the Audacious, passed the Venerable to windward. At this time, the Caesar and the two remaining ships were upwards of three miles astern.
The following is a statement of the british squadron, with their loss of killed and wounded, showing the names of the officers of marines serving on board the respective ships.
Caesar, 80 guns, rear-admiral sir James Saumarez, captain Jahleel Brenton, 18 killed, 25 wounded. Captain James Maxwell, first-lieutenant William Dymock, first-lieutenant Philip Pipon, second-lieutenant Henry Grape.
Pompee, 74 guns, captain Charles Stirling, 15 killed, 69 wounded. Captain Samuel Middleton, lieutenant Alexander Anderson, lieutenant George F. Skipp.
Spencer, 74 guns, Henry D'Esterre Darby, 6 killed, 27 wounded. Captain Thomas Abernethie, first-lieutenant Robert Stevens, second-lieutenant Joseph Triscott.
Venerable, 74 guns, captain Samuel Hood, 8 killed, 25 wounded. Captain John Wardlaw, second-lieutenant Walter S. Boyd, second-lieutenant John Cockell, second-lieutenant Alexander Smith.
Superb, 74 guns, captain Richard G. Keats, Captain Benjamin
Dickenson, first-lieutenant Charles Rosville, second-lieutenant Joseph Britton, second-lieutenant W. Dorrington. Hannibal, 74 guns, captain Solomon Ferris, 75 killed, 62 wounded. Captain John Victor, first-lieutenant William Connolly, lieutenant James D. Williams (killed), secondlieutenant George Dunford (wounded).
Audacious, 74 guns, captain Shuldham Peard, 8 killed, 32 wounded. Captain Martin Horlock, lieutenant Robert Hart, second-lieutenant Nathaniel Pitts, second-lieutenant Robert J. W. Day.
Total— killed 130, wounded 240.
At 8 h. 30 m. a.m. the Pompee, hauling close up for the tower of Santa Garcia and the island battery, received the fire of the Muiron, and successively of the Indomptable, Desaix, and Formidable; and after firing a broadside at each of the two latter ships, dropped her anchor close to the Formidable's starboard bow, where she continued the action with great spirit. At 8 h. 50 m. the Audacious, and five minutes afterwards the Venerable, baffled by the want of wind, having dropped their anchors, the former abreast of the Indomptable, and the Venerable at a considerable distance from the quarter of the Formidable, a furious cannonade was maintained on both sides. At about 9 h. 1 5 m. the Caesar anchored a-head of the Audacious, and after sending a spring on board the Venerable, she opened her broadside upon the Desaix. A few minutes afterwards, the Hannibal also got into action, anchoring within hail, and on the starboard bow of the Caesar. The Spencer, owing to the light winds, was far to leeward, and could not approach much nearer than was sufficient to expose her to the heavy fire of the Spanish batteries. At 10 a. m. the Hannibal was ordered by the rear-admiral to weigh and take a position to rake the french admiral in order to support the Pompee, who was then in a very critical situation. The Hannibal immediately cut her cable, and casting herself by the spring, stood to the northward with the light air from the west-north-west, and then tacked for the Formidable; but at 11 a.m., just as she had arrived abreast of the tower of Almirante, and was in the act of hauling closer to the shore in order to cross the hawse of the french ship, the Hannibal took the ground. In this situation she opened a fire upon the Formidable with as many of her foremost guns as she could get to bear, and the remainder were directed with evident effect upon the tower of Almirante, the battery of San Jago, and the gunboats. An ineffectual effort was made to get the ship afloat, and a boat from the Venerable and Csesar had been sent to afford assistance; but finding every means unsuccessful, the boats returned to their respective ships, whilst the Hannibal continued to defend herself as she could bring her guns to bear upon the enemy.

Soon after the Hannibal grounded, a light breeze sprang up from the north-east, and rear-admiral Linois, to get further from the reach of his opponents, threw out the signal for his ships to cut, and run themselves on shore. This was immediately complied with; but the wind suddenly failing, the Formidable brought up again with her broadside towards the enemy: in the mean while the Desaix grounded upon a shoal in front of the town, and the Indomptable upon one to the north-east of Isla-Verda, with her larboard towards the sea.

The Csesar now made the signal for the british ships to cut, and then wearing round the Audacious and Venerable, she brought her broadside to bear upon the Indomptable, into whose bows the Caesar poured a destructive fire. At a little before noon the Audacious passed between the Csesar and Indomptable, and shortly afterwards the fore top-mast of the latter was shot away. The Venerable and Spencer, after cutting their cables, were incapable, on account of the calm that immediately ensued, of co-operating in the attack; and the Venerable's mizen top-mast was shot away just as she was in the act of casting. The Pompee, after remaining nearly an hour unable from her position to bring a gun to bear, had also cut, and was now towed out of action. The Audacious and Csesar were also prevented, by its falling calm, from taking their new position; and both these ships, exposed to a heavy fire from the guns of the island battery without the power of returning a shot, were drifting upon the reef that was near it. Thus frustrated by the unfavourable state of the weather, and the serious opposition of the enemy's batteries and shipping, and being prevented, by the destruction of most of the boats and the absence of the remainder, which had gone to assist the Pompee, from an attempt to storm the island with the marines of the squadron, the Caesar and Audacious at 1 h. 30 m. p.m. cut their cables; and profiting by a light breeze from the shore, made sail on the starboard tack in company with the Venerable and Spencer, being reluctantly compelled to leave the dismasted and nobly-defended Hannibal as a trophy in the enemy's hands.
The loss and damage sustained by the british squadron was very considerable: the total killed amounted to 121, 240 wounded, and 14 missing. Lieutenant James D. Williams of the marines was killed on board the Hannibal, and Lieutenant George Dunford wounded.

As soon as rear-admiral Linois got his ships afloat, he sent an express to admirals Massaredo and Dumanoir at Cadiz, requesting them to despatch a squadron to his assistance, before the british ships were sufficiently repaired to renew the attack. In compliance with this solicitation, vice-admiral Moreno with six sail of the line moved into the outer road of Cadiz on the 8th, ready to start with the land-wind on the next morning. This movement was observed by captain Richard G. Keats, who with the Superb 74, Thames frigate, and Pasley brig, were watching the motions of the fleet in Cadiz. On the 9th, the enemy's squadron put to sea, consisting of five ships of the line and three frigates, steering towards the straits, and preceded by the british 74, frigate, and brig.

Early in the afternoon the Pasley came crowding into Gibraltar, with the signal flying for an enemy; and at 3 p.m., while the Spanish squadron was hauling round Cabrita point, the Superb and Thames anchored by signal in the bay of Gibraltar. Shortly afterwards the Spanish squadron cast anchor in the road of Algesiras; and qp the following morning the St. Antoine 74 joined them from Cadiz. As it was now evident that this reinforcement was to conduct the squadron of admiral Linois to Cadiz, the utmost exertion was made by the men and officers of the british squadron to get their ships ready for sea.

The Pompee was in too bad a state to admit of her being refitted in time, her men were therefore turned over to assist in the repairs of the other ships ; and the Caesar was in so shattered a state, that the admiral shifted his flag to the Audacious; but when this circumstance was made known to the crew of the Csesar, and that unless she could be got ready in time they were to be distributed to the effective ships, the gallant fellows answered, with three cheers, " All hands to work, night and day, until she is ready.'' By their extraordinary exertions, working all day, and watch and watch by night, the ship was warped into the mole and her masts shipped on the 8th; a new main-mast got in on the 9th; and on the 11th their energies were, if possible, increased by the enemy showing some symptoms of sailing. On Sunday the 12th, at dawn of day, the enemy loosed sails; whilst the Caesar was still refitting in the mole, receiving stores previous to hauling out. The wind was now fresh from the eastward, but it was not until noon that the combined squadron began to move: at 1 p. m. they were all under weigh, and the two Spanish first-rates off Cabrita point. At thi moment the Caesar was warping out of the mole, and the line wall, mole-head, and batteries were crowded, from the dockyard to the ragged staff, — the Caesar's band playing, " Come cheer up, my lads, 'tis to glory we steer;" the military band of the garrison answering with " Britons, strike home " It is impossible to describe the enthusiasm of this inspiring scene : all were eager to participate in the glorious struggle at hand, and even the wounded were desirous to be taken on board, to share in the honours of the approaching conflict.

The Caesar, as she passed under the stern of the Audacious in her way out of the mole, at 3 p.m. rehoisted the flag of sir James Saumarez, and made ^he signal for the ships to weigh and prepare for battle. The squadron, consisting of the Caesar, Venerable, Superb, Spencer, and Audacious of the line, Thames 32, captain A. P. Hollis, with 14-gun polacre Calpe and Portuguese frigate Carlotta, were soon under sail; and as they got from under the lee of the rock, they formed in line a-head. At 7 h. 45 m. p.m. they wore together and stood on the starboard tack under easy sail. About 7 h. 50 m. the combined squadron cleared Cabrita point, with the exception of the Hannibal, who having top-masts for lower-masts, remained behind in tow of a frigate; and eventually, the two latter returned to Algesiras, leaving the following force SPANISH.
Real Carlos 112, Hermenegildo 112, San Fernando 96, Argonauta 80, San Augustin 74, with the Sabina frigate; and on board of the latter were vice-admiral Moreno, and rear-admiral Linois.
Formidable 80, Indomptable 80, St. Antoine 74, Desaix 74, Libre and Muiron, frigates.
The british squadron bore away in chase soon after 8 p.m., and at 8 h. 40 m. the Superb, having been directed to go a-head and attack the sternmost ships of the enemy, soon got sight of them; and at 1 1 p. m. she had so much increased her distance, that the Caesar was the only british ship visible from her. At 11 h. 30 m. the Superb shortened sail, and when within 300 yards of the Real Carlos, opened her larboard broadside. In a short time, the Spanish three-decker was observed to be on fire, just as her mizen top-mast had been shot away; soon afterwards she came suddenly to the wind and dropped astern in great confusion. The Superb then made sail, and at 1 1 h. 50 m. p. m. brought to action the St. Antoine. After a close encounter of thirty minutes, the french 74 ceased firing, and hailed that she had surrendered; but from the circumstance of the broad pendant remaining flying on board of her, owing to the halliards having been shot away, she was fired into by Caesar, Venerable, Spencer, and Thames, as they successively arrived up.

At about fifteen minutes past midnight the Real Carlos blew up, but not until she had fallen foul of the San Hermenegildo, who, mistaking the Real Carlos for a british ship, had been engaging her; and in less than a quarter of an hour she also exloded. Only 300 were saved out of 2000 men composing the crews of these Spanish ships, but the Superb had no fmther loss than lieutenant E. Waller and 14 men wounded.
During the latter part of the night it blew very hard, and on the 13th, at 4 a.m., the only ships in company with the Caesar were the Venerable and Thames a-head, in chase of the french 80-gun ship Formidable on their lee bow, standing towards the shoals of Conil, with a light air from off the land; at the same time the Spencer was in sight, far astern of the admiral's ship. As the Formidable had jury top-masts, the Venerable and Thames came up with her fast, and at 5 h. 15 m. the enemy's ship commenced firing; soon afterwards the Thames hauled up and raked her, but the Venerable did not open her fire until the lapse of five or six minutes, when the baffling airs threw the two ships broadside-to, within musket-shot of each other. At 5 h. 30 m. the Venerable lost her mizen top-mast; and at 6 h. 45. m. her main-mast having fallen by the board, she dropped from alongside her opponent, who stood on her course, keeping up a well-directed fire from her stern chasers. At 7 h. 50 m. the Venerable's fore-mast fell over the side, just as the ship, driven by the strength of the current, struck upon the rocky shoals of San Pedro, about twelve miles to the southward of Cadiz; and at 8 a.m. her mizen-mast shared the fate of the other masts. At this time the Caesar, Audacious, and Superb making their appearance, the Spanish admiral was induced to haul up for Cadiz, whence the remaining ships of his squadron arrived in safety. By great exertion trie Venerable was got afloat and towed into Gibraltar; having sustained a loss of her master and 17 killed, lieutenant Thomas Church and 86 wounded.

For the service rendered to the country by the prompt and effective manner in which the combined squadron under viceadmiral Moreno was attacked by the British under rear-admiral sir James Saumarez, the officers, seamen, and marines received the thanks of Parliament; the rear-admiral obtained the distinction of a knight of the bath, and several naval officers were promoted: yet no reward was extended to the marines.

13th of December captain Fanshawe, of the Castor frigate, having discovered some mutinous designs among the seamen, ordered the marines under arms. The command was instantly and cheerfully obeyed by lieutenant J. S. Smith, who heading his party, drove the most determined of the disaffected to the larboard side of the lower deck, and then seized the ringleaders.
At the court-martial on these deluded men, captain Western, the president, thus addressed lieutenant Smith: " I have it in command from this court, to express to you the high sense they entertain of your very officer-like conduct on the evening of the 13th December, and the good and steady conduct of the party of marines embarked under your orders. Your prompt and spirited execution of captain Fanshawe's orders, appears to the court to have stopped a very dangerous mutiny; and this token of their approbation of your conduct will be transmitted to the commander-in-chief, and inserted in the minutes of the courtmartial."
This flattering mark of approbation was much enhanced, by the following gratifying commendation of the commander-in chief:" Southampton, Fort Royal Bay, 26th December 1801.
" Memorandum. — Whereas the members of the court-martial on the mutineers of his Majesty's ship Castor have felt called upon, in justice to the exemplary and meritorious conduct of lieutenant J. S. Smith of the marines, and the party under his command, to express their high sense of such spirited behaviour; It is my directions that these sentiments of the court be read
on board his Majesty's ship under my orders, to testify how fully I accord with the court in the commendation so deservedly bestowed.
(Signed) J. T. DUCKWORTH."
(Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1802. Friday 2nd July. In the evening, the 38-gun frigate Minerve, captain Jahleel Brenton, being close in with the harbour of Cherbourg in a thick fog, grounded on the western conehead, and became exposed to the fire of two batteries, mounting together 170 guns and 40 mortars. After great exertion, the Minerve was got afloat at 4 a.m. on the 3rd and would soon have been out of gun-shot, when it unfortunately fell calm and the last of the flood carrying the now helpless ship into the harbour, laid her upon a broken cone, where she remained until the top of high water, and then surrendered, having sustained a loss of 11 men killed and 16 wounded. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1802. Sunday 4th July. In the evening, lieutenant Robert Irwin of the marines assisted in the boats of the Naiad frigate, under the orders of lieutenant William Dean, in an attack and capture of the french national schooner Providence, mounting 2 guns, with a crew of 22 men, moored among the rocks and shoals of the Saintes.

The 36-gun frigate Blanche, captain Z. Mudge, was lying anchored in Manunille bay, in St. Domingo, on the 3rd of November, when the french cutter Albion, having a crew of 43 men and officers, was discovered close to the battery of Monte Christe, mounting 4 long twenty-four pounders and 3 fieldpieces. During the day three boats, under the orders of lieutenant Braithwaite, proceeded to attempt the capture of this vessel; but owing to the breeze blowing right on shore, the enterprise was abandoned. A night attack was then resolved upon, and lieutenant Edward Nicolls of the marines volunteered to cut her out in a single boat. On the evening of the 4th that officer, accompanied by 12 men in the ship's cutter, pushed off from the frigate; but was shortly followed by the barge with 22 men, commanded by lieutenant the honourable Warwick Lake. Lieutenant Nicolls soon afterwards pointed out the object of their pursuit to lieutenant Lake; but the latter, considering that the french cutter lay on the opposite or north-east side of the bay, proceeded in that direction, leaving the other boat to watch the vessel that had been discovered. At about 2 h. 30 m. a. m. on the 5th, lieutenant Nicolls pulled cautiously towards the cutter, whose crew expecting a second attack, had made preparations to meet it. On arriving within pistol-shot, and being hailed by the cutter, the British gave three hearty cheers and dashed at her, receiving in quick succession two volleys of musketry, — the second discharge wounding the coxswain severely, the man at the bow oar, and a marine; but before the enemy could fire a third time, lieutenant Nicolls, at the head of his little party, sprang on board of her. The ball of the french captain's pistol entered the lieutenant's side, then passing under the skin, lodged in the fleshy part of his opposite arm; and almost at the same moment the captain was killed, either by the pistol of lieutenant Nicolls, or by a marine standing near him. The crew were then driven below, after very little further resistance, with the loss, besides their captain killed, of 5 men wounded.

As yet the battery had not fired a shot, although only 100 yards distant from the cutter; for as the marines continued to fire their muskets while the seamen were getting the vessel under weigh, the enemy believed the Albion was still resisting. But lieutenant Lake arriving at the moment the jib was hauled for casting, he ordered the musketry to be discontinued; whereupon the battery opened a fire of round and grape, which killed 2 of the Blanche's seamen. However, as there was a favourable breeze, the cutter, with the two boats towing her, soon ran out of gun-shot, without incurring any further loss.

It can scarcely be credited that the captain of the Blanche should purposely detract from the merit of lieutenant Nicolls, by not only omitting the name of that officer in the report of wounded, but even the credit of the gallant capture of the cutter is attributed to the joint attack under lieutenant Lake, who certainly did not take part in the fight, nor did he arrive on board the prize until she was under way. Captain Mudge in his official letter, says: " At 2 this morning the enemy's cutter was masterly and gallantly attacked by lieutenant Lake in the cutter, and lieutenant Nicolls of the marines in the barge, who cut her out. She is 92 tons burthen, coppered close up and fastened; having 2 four-pounders, 6 swivels, and 20 muskets. The affair cost me 2 men killed, aud 2 wounded."

From this report it would be impossible to infer that the " two men wounded," included a commissioned officer; but lieutenant Nicolls, although omitted by his captain, was honoured by a sword of the value of £30 from the Patriotic Fund, for having commanded one of the boats; whilst lieutenant Lake, for his gallantry, obtained one of £50! Another quarter, equally de ceived, promoted lieutenant Lake, but paid no attention to the claims of the officer who so nobly executed the service he had gallantly undertaken. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1802. When the Marines were made Royal, Lord Vincent is reported to have said: “In obtaining for them the distinction of ‘Royal’ I inefficiently did my duty I never knew an appeal made to them for honour, courage or loyalty that they did not more than realise my biggest expectations. If ever the real danger should come to England they will be found the country’s sheet Anchor."

1802. The establishment of the Corps strength was 12,119 men.

1802. Tuseday 16th November. A detachment from the Blenheim 74, consisting of 71 seamen, under lieutenants Thomas Cole and Thomas Furber, with 60 marines under lieutenants George Beatty and Walter S. Boyd, and the whole under the orders of captain Ferris of the Drake sloop, proceeded at 11 p.m. to attempt the capture of the Harmonie, french privateer, mounting 8 carriage guns, with a crew of 66 men, in the harbour of Marin, island of Martinique. It was arranged, that while the seamen attacked the privateer, the marines were to surprise, or at all events to storm Fort Dunkirk, a battery of nine guns, situated on the starboard side of the harbour, and the possession of which was necessary, to prevent the island militia from collecting on Marin point, whence they could have greatly annoyed the boats on their return. By judiciously timing their departure from the ship, both parties arrived at the same instant at their respective destinations. The marines surprised the fort, and took 15 prisoners, and having dismounted and spiked the guns, they destroyed the carriages and blew up the magazine. But lieutenant Beatty humanely spared the barracks; for had they been set on fire a large and ripe field of canes would have been destroyed. The seamen had 1 killed and 5 wounded. On the 26th of November captain Acheson Crozier and lieutenant Walker, with the detachment of marines, were landed from the 74-gun ship Centaur, at the Petite Ance d'Arlette, Martinique, and carried a battery mounting 6 twenty-four pounders, which they destroyed, and threw the guns over the precipice. In exploding the magazine, one man was killed; captain Crozier, lieutenant Walker, and 6 men wounded.
Lieutenant McLauglan, of the marines of the Centaur, assisted at the destruction of a battery of 3 guns on the Pointe d'Arlette, between Grande and Petite Ance. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1802. The Marines became a Royal Corps and tradition has it that this honour was awarded for loyalty during the Nore Mutiny.

1802 - 1870. The last force of Royal Marines to serve in Australia was stationed at Cape York.

1802. In commemoration of the distinguished services performed by the marines during the war, his Majesty was graciously pleased to honour them with the style of " Royal Marines." (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1802. Royal Mounted Marines of the 1800’s. The British Royal Navy used mounted marines in expeditionary warfare off and on in the 19th century.
The first known use of a “Royal Mounted Marines” corps was in 1802, when the British Royal Navy organized a few hundred men from the newly titled Royal Marines who could pass a riding test. These men were mustered aboard units of the Royal Navy in small detachments. While issued horses on a 1: 1 ratio in barracks ashore, when these horse marines took to the ocean, they only brought one horse for every three men. It was thought that the unit would seize local mounts as they moved inland. These forces were meant to be used for coastal raids as far as fifty miles inland. This was the basis of the modern naval theory of from-the-sea expeditionary warfare power projection. It was thought that the force could be employed in the Peninsular campaign against Napoleon’s army in Spain, but no confirmed actions exist in the campaign.
The only documented case of the Royal Mounted Marines seeing service on horseback was in 1811. A detachment was landed on the island of Java in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) from the HMS Lion.
At the time the Dutch were an ally of Napoleon and these marines brought the war to the pacific with their raid. The horse marines, numbering some 190 men, captured French General Jamelle who was transiting through the area and disarmed over 500 Dutch troops with few losses of their own. They later escorted Rear Admiral Robert Stopford, commander of the task force, when he received the surrender of the French forces at Sourabaya on 22nd September 1811.
The official disbanding date of the Royal Mounted Marines has been lost to history, but it is known that no other histories mention such a force after the Napoleonic wars.
The British horse marines experiment came to a close by the end of the 19th century. Their greatest legacy to military doctrine was the concept of expeditionary warfare that was picked up by the United States Marine Corps only a generation later. In British popular culture the horse marines are remembered solely from the 1868 Song Sheet Captain Jinks of the Horse Marines which was based loosely on this organization and several vaudeville acts, operas and other pieces of theatre evolved from this simple ditty:
“I’m Capt. Jinks of the Horse Marines, I feed my horse corn and beans. I teach my horses how to prance, and I teach young ladies how to dance.” (Author Unknown)

1803 to 1815. The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars fought between Napoleon's French Empire and a series of opposing coalitions. That composed of the United Kingdom, Prussia, Austria, Sweden, Spain, Portugal and Russia against France. The wars where originally sparked by the French Revolution during 1789. Napoleon went on to fight 60 battles, losing only seven, mostly towards the end of his rein. The great French Dominion collapsed rapidly after the disastrous invasion of Russia during 1812. Eventually Napoleon was defeated by the Russians in 1814. He returned to France and was finally defeated in 1815 at the battle of Waterloo, and all of France's gains were stripped away by the victors. During the Napoleonic Wars the Royal Marines participated in all the naval battles on board Royal Navy's ships and several amphibious landings.

1803. Establishment of the Corps was increased to 22,467. Many officers were allowed the retirement, and through the advocacy of the Earl St Vincent, it was made an open list.

1803. Friday 18th March. Besides the many useful reforms adopted by Earl St. Vincent, for the internal œconomy of the British Navy, his Lordship also turned his attention to the Corps of Royal Marines. Upon the 18th of March, a new code of instructions was published for their regulation when on shore, which vests in the four Senior Captains of each division, the management and superintendance of many concerns that had formerly been placed under separate departments. It would exceed my bounds to attempt the discussion of arrangements which are obviously well designed to promote the interests of the public and the individual, as well as to establish a facility in subordinate transactions. Experience, doubtless, will attest their wisdom, and posterity recognize with gratitude their enlightened author.

1803. Thursday 25th March. The peace of Amiens was so unpopular to both nations, that it was generally expected to be but of short duration: warlike preparations continued to increase with such activity, that it gave to the treaty the character of a truce or suspension of arms, in which both parties were striving to gain an advantageous position on a renewal of hostilities. Squadrons were preparing in the ports of France, Holland, and Spain; and abritish fleet was in readiness to watch and follow their movements. France had long been desirous to gain possession of Malta, or to have that island placed under the protection of a power favourable to her interests but England, in order to counteract that design, stipulated that this important island should be guaranteed by Great Britain, France, Austria, Russia, and Spain, and not under the protection of Russia alone. It was no longer concealed that Buonaparte's intentions were to occupy Egypt and the Ionian islands; and the augmentation of the french military establishments gave a clear indication of these warlike proceedings.

Negotiations were opened with a desire to remove the difficulties in the way of a continuance of peace; but the unfavourable aspect of affairs produced a message from his Majesty to Parliament, stating that the preparations in the ports of France rendered it necessary to increase our armaments by sea and land, although the french government protested that it had no other view in these preparations, beyond subduing their own revolted colony of San Domingo.

In the ultimatum submitted by Great Britain, it was proposed to retain Malta for ten years, but France contended it should be ceded to Russia: lord Whitworth consequently left Paris, and war was declared against France by his britannic Majesty on the 18th of May 1803; On the night of the 27th of June, two boats from the 38-gun frigate Loire, captain F. L. Maitland, under the orders of lieutenant Francis Temple, attacked the french national brig Venteux of 10 guns, anchored close under the batteries of the Isle of Bas. Although fully prepared for the assault, she was gallantly boarded, and after a defence of ten minutes, carried and brought out, with the loss on the part of the British of 5 seamen and 1 marine wounded. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1803. Wednesday 18th May. Doris captured Affronteur.

1803. Saturday 28th May. Minotaur captured Franchise.

1803. Tuesday 14th June. Immortalite and consorts cut out Inabordable and Commode.

1803. Centaur and consorts took Morne Fortunee.

1803. Saturday 25th June. Endymion captured Bacchante.

1803. Monday 27th June. Boats of Loire captured Venteux.

1803. Tuesday 28th June. Goliath captured Mignonne.

1803. Tuesday 28th June. Hereule engaged Poursuivante.

1803. Thursday 30th June. Vanguard and Cumberland captured Creole.

1803. Thursday 30th June. Capture of Tobago.

1803. Saturday 2nd July. Minerve captured off Cherbourg.

1803. Monday 4th July. Boats of Naiad cut out Providence.

1803. Monday 11th July. Racoon captured Lodi.

1803. Monday 25th July. Vanguard and Tartar captured Duquesne.

1803. Monday 1st August. Boats of Hydra captured Favori.

1803. Sunday 14th August. Racoon captured Petite Fille, Amelie, and Jeune Adele.

1803. Wednesday 17th August. Racoon destroyed Mutine.

1803. Thursday 25th August. Seagull and Colossus captured Lord Nelson (late British).

1803. Wednesday 31st August. Boadicca engaged Duguay-Trouin and Guerriere.

1803. Friday 9th September. Boats of Sheerness captured two chasse-marees.

1803. Tuesday 13th - 15th September. Cerberus and consorts at Granville.

1803. Wednesday 14th September. Dieppe bombarded by Immortalite and consorts.

1803. Tuesday 20th September. Princess Augusta repulsed Union and Wraak.

1803. Tuesday 27th September. Calais bombarded by Autumn and consorts.

1803. Thursday 29th September. Boats of Antelope in the Texel.

1803. Thursday 29th September. Leda drove ashore 23 gun-vessels.

1803. September. Demerara, Essequibo, and Berbice surrendered.

1803. Monday 9th October. Boats of Atalante cut out two French vessels.

1803. Wednesday 26th October. Boats of Osprey captured Ressource.

1803. Thursday 27th October. Milbrook and boats destroyed Sept Freres.

1803. Monday 31st October. Admiral Mitchell drove ashore a French gun-brig.

1803. Friday 4th November. Launch of Blanche cut out a French schooner.

1803. Friday 4th November. Boats of Blanche cut out Albion.

1803. Saturday 5th November. Lieutenant Edward Nicolls RM led a 12 man cutting-out party in the cutter from HMS Blanche, and captured the French cutter Albion from under the battery at Monte Christe in Santo Domingo. The Albion had a crew of 43 men and was armed with two 4-pounder guns and six swivels. In the fighting the French Captain wounded Nicolls with a pistol shot before being himself killed. The British lost two dead and two wounded, including Nicolls. Later he became known as fighting Nicholls. During his remarkable career he saw action 106 times, was wounded six times, court martialled twice, and demoted. However, he was eventually promoted to the rank of Lieutenant General.

1803. Sunday 6th November. Cutter of Blanche captured a French trooper.

1803. Monday 14th November. Boats of Blenheim and Drake captured Harmonie and stormed.

1803. Wednesday 16th November. Boats of Blenheim at Martinique. Lieutenant G. Beatty and 60 Marines storm Fort Dunkirk protecting the harbour of Marin, while the seamen cut out L’Harmonie a French privateer.

1803. Saturday 26th November. The storming of a battery at Petite Ance D’Arlette on Martinique. Captain Acheson Crozier. Lieutenant. W. Walker and Marines of HMS Centaur carried a 9 gun battery of 24 pounders. Lieutenant Walker received a sword of honour and £100 from the Patriotic fund.

1803. Wednesday 30th November. Capture of Cape Francois and Surveillante and Clorinde.

1803. Friday 16th December. Merlin destroyed the grounded British frigate Shannon.

1803. Royal Marine George Smith arrived in Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) along with his wife Grace Morrisby onboard the Calcutta, as a guard looking after the convicts.

1803.The very important services of the fleets of Britain, through successive generations, have justly entitled her Seamen to public recompence and protection. Every means, therefore, which good policy or expediency could suggest, have been adopted at different times, for their comforts and welfare.
Whether from an illiberal distinction, or a faulty omission, I know not, still the Marine Soldier, habitually a sharer in the dangers and the glory of our Navy, notwithstanding such natural claims to notice, was, for a long while, excluded from a participation in these humane regulations which afforded independence to the destitute families of our Sailors when afar off in their Country's service. It was reserved for a recent and a more enlightened era to extend also to the Marine, a privilege which must constitute the sweetest joy of every good man that of allotting a part of his pay, when embarked, and distant from his home, for the constant support of a wife and family otherwise doomed to want, an aged parent weighed down by poverty and years, or a dependant friend struggling hard against adversity.

I shall state the nature of those rights which have progressively been granted to the Marine Soldier and point out the mode by which they can be practically adopted. It is a tribute, however, meritedly due to the Right Honorable Mr. Dundas, to remark, that from his intelligent and generous conceptions, first emanated all these estimable privileges to the subordinates in the Royal Corps of Marines, which were eagerly discussed and sanctioned by a grateful Legislature.
Without recurring to the express Acts of Parliament, upon which those indulgencies are founded, I will simply digest their spirit, and detail the necessary steps to be observed, under every possible contingency. It will be proper to mention, in the first place, that every Marine Recruit should intimate to his wife or kindred, immediately after his joining Head Quarters at Chatham, Portsmouth, or Plymouth, the number of the divisional Company to which he has been attached. Young men too frequently name only their parade Companies which is of no use after they are embarked on board, as such often undergo a change while they continue on shore. By particularizing the former, it serves as a certain clue to their friends in every enquiry concerning their destinies, and will correct mistakes when two, or more, of a similar name shall happen to belong to the same ship or division. Taken from the Appendix 'An Historical Review of the Royal Marine Corps' by Alexander Gillespie)

1803 - 1815. During the Napoleonic Wars the Royal Marines participated in every notable naval battle on board the Royal Navy's ships and also took part in multiple amphibious actions. Marines had a dual function aboard ships of the Royal Navy in this period; routinely, they ensured the security of the ship's officers and supported their maintenance of discipline in the ship's crew, and in battle, they engaged the enemy's crews, whether firing from positions on their own ship, or fighting in boarding actions.
The number of marines on board Royal Naval ships depended on the size of the ship and was generally kept at a ratio of one marine per ship gun, plus officers. For example: a First Rate Ship of the Line contained 104 marines while a 28 gun Frigate had 29. Between 1807 and 1814, the total marine establishment number was 31,400 men. Manpower (recruitment and retention) problems saw regular infantry units from the British Army being used as shipboard replacements on numerous occasions. One result of the Royal Navy's dominance of the seas in Europe, and the blockading of the French Navy's ports, was that manpower constraints became less of an issue at the end of the Napoleonic Wars. From 1812, such maritime supremacy meant the Mediterranean and Channel Fleets were assigned additional marines for use 'in destroying signal communications and other petty harassing modes of warfare'.
In the Caribbean theatre volunteers from freed French slaves on Marie-Galante were used to form the 1st Corps of Colonial Marines. These men bolstered the ranks, helping the British to hold the island until reinforcements arrived. This practice was repeated during the War of 1812, where escaped American slaves were formed into the 2nd Corps of Colonial Marines. These men were commanded by Royal Marines officers and fought alongside their regular Royal Marines counterparts at the Battle of Bladensburg in August 1814. During the battle a detachment of Royal Marine Artillery commanded by Lieutenant John Lawrence deployed Congreve rockets resulting in the rout of the US militiamen. The Royal Marines battalion and the 21st Regiment of Foot also took part in the Burning of Washington later that day.
Also present on shore during the Chesapeake campaign was a composite battalion of Marines, formed from ships' Marine detachments, frequently led by Captain John Robyns. A smaller composite battalion of about 100 men (23 officers, two of whom (John Wilson 1787-1850 and John Alexander Phillips 1790-1865) were Trafalgar veterans, and 80 other ranks) also took part in the Battle of New Orleans, under the command of Brevet Major Thomas Adair, in January 1815. The only British success at New Orleans was an attack on the west bank of the Mississippi River by a 700-man force, consisting of the 100 Royal Marines, 100 sailors under Captain Rowland Money, and 3 companies of the 85th Foot.
Throughout the war Royal Marines units raided up and down the east coast of America including up the Penobscot River and in the Chesapeake Bay. They later helped capture Fort Bowyer in Mobile Bay in what was the last action of the war.

1804. In the early part of the year, a considerable military force assembled on the french coast, and the preparations for invading England were continued with the greatest activity, in the construction of 2000 prames, gun-vessels, and flat-bottomed boats, to convey the army across the Channel. Almost every department of the nation voted a ship of the line, each of the larger villages a frigate, and every commune gave its prame, gun-vessel, peniche, or flat-bottomed boat. Vessels for the flotilla were constructing, not only in all the naval ports and in the small harbours along the coast, but upon the banks of every river. Even Paris became for a time a maritime arsenal: two slips were erected there, and many vessels of the smaller kind were launched on that part of the Seine. At Antwerp, for the first time during a great many years, the keels of ships of the line were laid down; and at Brest, l'Orient, Rochefort, and Toulon, several ships of force and magnitude were ordered to be built. The ports of reunion of the flotilla were seven: Ostend, Dunkerque, Calais, Ambleteuse, Vimereux, Boulogne, and Etaples; and Boulogne, being only twelve leagues from the low land between Dover and Hastings, was made the main depot. This port, until the projected invasion, possessed an insignificant harbour, formed by the estuary of a small river which was nearly dry at low water, having only one quay but in a short time both banks of the river were lined with quays, moles were constructed, a capacious basin formed, and a bridge thrown across the river; and the water being confined by means of a dam, vessels were kept constantly afloat. Immense bat teries were erected on all the commanding points, and a strongline of heavy gun-vessels moored across the road, which from the numerous shoals and sand-banks was difficult of approach: the tides, too, which cross each other in an extraordinary manner, were very serious obstacles in the way of a bombarding force. Corresponding exertions were making on the british coast: a number of small vessels, each armed with one or two heavy long guns, were stationed at the Nore, and at all the most assailable parts of the shore; as were also several large ships, mounted with heavy carronades. Martello towers were erected along the coast, and a large army, composed of regulars, militia, and volunteers, was ready to meet the enemy, should he venture to place foot on english ground. In the Channel, and all along the french coast, our cruisers were constantly on the watch, ready to fall upon the divisions of the flotilla when they showed themselves outside the sands and batteries by which they were protected; and scarcely a day passed without some skirmish, either with the vessels under the protection of their numerous batteries, or by encounters with the flotilla. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1804. Tuesday 3rd January - 25th March. The Attack on Curacao. Lieutenant Nicholls and 199 Marines belonging to HMS Hercule, HMS Blanche, HMS Pique and HMS Gipsy were present, when fort Piscadoro was stormed and French troops driven under the guns of Fort Republique by seamen and Marines of these ships. Lieutenant Nicolls and his Marines withstood 28 consecutive days of continuous enemy assaults on their positions.

1804. Sunday 15th January. Captain John Bligh, of the 74-gun ship Theseus, was ordered by sir John Duckworth to proceed from Port Royal, St. Domingo, and summons the garrison of Curacoa, taking with him the 74 gun-ship Hercule, frigates Blanche and Pique, and Gipsy schooner. Owing to calms and variable winds, this squadron did not reach the island of Curagoa until the 31st, when a summons was sent to the governor, who peremptorily refused the terms. The passage into the harbour is so narrow, that even with a fair wind, a line of battle ship can enter with difficulty and the batteries, mounting nearly 100 pieces of cannon, entirely command the entrance. Under these circumstances, no alternative remained but to try the effect of a landing. Captain Bligh therefore bore up with two seventy-fours for an eligible spot where the disembarkation might be effected, leaving the two frigates to cause a diversion of the enemy's force, and to blockade the harbour. According to a previous arrangement, the boats of the squadron, all the marines of the four ships, amounting to 199, including lieutenants Edward Nicolls (senioiyDfficer), William Henry Craig, Samuel Perrot, Earle Harwood, and Bertrand Cahuac, had assembled on board the Hercule, with a detachment of 406 seamen; numbering together 605 officers and men, under the order of captain Richard D. Dunn.

Fort Amsterdam, situated on the south-east side of the entrance to St. Ann, fired at the ships as they passed, but the shot fell short. At 1 1 h. 30 m. Fort Piscadero, mounting 10 twelve-pounders, and protecting the intended point of disembarkation, opened a fire, which was returned by the Theseus within half musket-shot; who, making short tacks, so effectually silenced the enemy, that at 1 p. m. the first division of seamen and marines landed, stormed the fort without sustaining any loss, and struck the dutch colours. They then by a rapid movement gained the heights, and with the loss of only four or five killed drove the dutch soldiers from the position: by this time, the remainder of the detachment had landed without opposition.

On the morning of the 13th of February 2 eighteen-pounder carronades and a field-piece were landed from the Theseus, and with great difficulty and danger were dragged four miles to the advanced position on the height, situated about 800 yards to the westward of the town of St. Ann, which it in part overlooked; and this post was placed under the command of lieutenant N. J. Willoughby, while the position between it and the place of disembarkation was under the orders of lieutenant J. B. Hills. On the 2nd, 2 long eighteen-pounders and 1 twelve-pounder were placed in " Willoughby's battery;" but in effecting this, some loss was sustained from the heavy fire kept up by Fort Republique. Four eighteen-pounder carronades and another field-piece having been landed and mounted at the outposts, a constant interchange of firing was kept up between the british and dutch batteries.
A smart skirmish took place between our advanced post and the enemy's sharp-shooters on the evening of the 4th, when the latter were repulsed; and on tb* morning of the 5th there was a serious affair between the marines under lieutenant Nicolls, and a force of Dutch and French amounting to 500 men. Notwithstanding the inferiority of the British, lieutenant Nicolls in the most gallant manner engaged the allied forces, and drove them under the guns of Fort Republique, from whose destructive fire, the marines sustained a loss of 20 in killed and wounded. On the 6th the cannonade was resumed on both sides, and the town partially set on fire. Many successive days were passed in this way, the british force decreasing, not only by the encounters with the enemy and the cannon of their heavy batteries, but from fatigue and sickness, 63 men had been embarked on account of dysentery. Thus, circumstanced and learning that the Dutch had already received a reinforcement, Captain Bligh determined on withdrawing the whole of his force; and at 11 p.m. on the 25th the detachment safely arrived on board the vessels appointed to receive them, having previously destroyed Fort Piscadero. The loss of the British, in the different skirmishes with the enemy, amounted to 1 midshipman, 8 seamen, 2 Serjeants, and 7 privates of marines killed; lieutenants Harewood, Cahuac, and Perrot (the latter with the loss of an arm), 16 seamen, 2 Serjeants, and 21 privates of marines, wounded. Total, — 18 killed, and 42 wounded. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1804. January - February. Operations at Curacoa.

1804. Sunday 27th May. The cutting out of La Conception.

1804. Saturday 4th February Boats of Centaur cut out Citrieux.

1804. Sunday 5th February. Eclair engaged Grand Decide.

1804. Sunday 19th February. Boats of Drake cut out a schooner at Martinique.

1804. Monday 20th February. Active engaged 16 gunboats and took a transport.

1804. Friday 24th February. Party from Drake stormed Trinite Fort.

1804. Sunday 4th March. Boats of Blenheim cut out Curieux.

1804. Monday 5th March. Cutter of Eclair cut out Rose.

1804. Wednesday 7th March. Boats of Inconstant cut out a ship at Goree.

1804. Thursday 8th March. Goree taken.

1804. Tuesday 13th March. Emerald and consort's boats cut out Mozambique.

1804. Wednesday 14th March. Drake captured two prizes.

1804. Saturday 17th March. Penguin and boats destroyed Renommee.

1804. Friday 23rd March. Osprey engaged Egyptienne.

1804. Saturday 24th March. Wolverine captured by Blonde.

1804. Sunday 25th March. Hippomenes captured Egyptienne.

1804. Saturday 31st March. Scorpion and Beaver cut out Dutch vessels.

1804. Tuesday 3rd April. Swift captured Esperanee.

1804. Monday 9th April. Amazon captured a brig under fire at Sepet.

1804. Tuesday 10th April. Wilhelmina engaged Psyche.

1804. April - May. Operations and capture of Surinam.

1804. Tuesday 8th May. Vincejo captured by 17 French vessels.

1804. Tuesday 15th May. Cruiser and five consorts engaged 60 vessels off Blankenberg.

1804. Thursday 24th May. Reconnaissance of Toulon.

1804. Thursday 21st June. Unsuccessful engagement with Buonaparte.

1804. Wednesday 11th July. At 10 p.m., three boats of the 32-gun frigate Narcissus, three of the 38-gun frigate Seahorse, and four of the 32-gun frigate Maidstone, under the orders of lieutenant Thompson, assisted by several officers, and among that number lieutenant William Wiltshire of the marines, proceeded to the attack of twelve settees lying at La Vaudour, in the bay of Hyeres, distant between four and five miles from the ships. The enemy's vessels were moored head and stern close to the beach, to which they were also completely secured, and covered by a battery of three guns. About midnight the settees were boarded under a tremendous fire of grape and musketry, as well from the vessels as from the batteries and the houses of the town: most of them were set fire to, and only one was brought off.

This gallant attack was unfortunately attended with severe loss lieutenant William Wiltshire of the marines, 1 midshipman, and 2 seamen, were killed; 1 lieutenant, 1 master's mate, 3 midshipmen, 15 seamen, and 3 marines wounded. We cannot refrain from an expression of astonishment, that in neither the letter of lieutenant Thompson to captain Donnelly, nor in the latter's official report, is there any mention of the officer of marines who gallantly fell in this enterprise; and but for the surgeon's return of the casualties, we should have been denied the opportunity of recording the name of lieutenant Wiltshire.

In the latter part of September, the A casta frigate, captain Atholl Wood, was attached to the Channel fleet, and on regaining her station off the Black Rockp, after a heavy gale from the eastward, reconnoitred the french fleet lying in Brest harbour. Finding that five ships of the line had disappeared since the frigate's last visit, it became a matter of speculation to account for the departure of the french squadron; and as a means of ascertaining the cause of their absence, lieutenant Thomas Peebles of the marines suggested the following scheme, which that officer carried into execution on the same evening. Soon after dark, the Acasta stood pretty close to the shore; and early on the following morning the lieutenant, with six marines in one of the cutters, and accompanied by Mr. Hemet, the master, put off from the frigate, directing their course for the point of Bertheaume, where it will be recollected there is a strong fort situated on a rock, and connected with the main land by a wooden bridge. Under this bridge the fishing-boats from Brest were accustomed to assemble during the night, in readiness to pursue their occupation on the following morning. It was just daylight when the cutter arrived near the rock, and immediately gaining possession of a fishing-boat, and taking a man out of two others, she was brought off, unobserved by the sentries in the fort directly over their heads. On reaching the Acasta, the fishermen were separately examined, and as they concurred in their statement that the missing ships had moved into the inner harbour, the Frenchmen, after being well regaled, were allowed to proceed to Brest in their own boat. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1804. Thursday 12th July. Aigle destroyed Charente and Joie.

1804. Sunday 15th July. Lily captured by Dame Ambert.

1804. Tuesday 31st July. Tartar's boats captured Hirondelle.

1804. July - Aug. Dieppe bombarded.

1804. Sunday 12th August. Galatea's boats failed to cut out General Ernouf (late Lily).

1804. Monday 13th August. The 32-gun frigate Galatea, captain Henry Heathcote, having discovered the late british sloop Lily (now the General Ernouf), refitting as a french privateer near Anse a. Mire in the Saintes' islands, and lying anchored near a french privateer-schooner; four boats, under the orders of lieutenant Hayman, assisted by several officers, including lieutenant Robert Hall of the marines, were sent to attempt her capture. At 10 p.m. the detachment left the Galatea and pulled towards the harbour under cover of the night; but the enemy had placed a guard-boat in advance, which gave an intimation of their approach, and consequently they were fully prepared to receive the attack. About 1 a.m. on the 14th, lieutenant Hayman in the barge, leading the party, was nearly alongside the Lily, hen the firing commenced heedless of this reception the boats dashed alongside, and in the dreadful conflict which ensued, lieutenant Hayman fell mortally wounded; and only 3 out of the 26 men and officers in the barge were left free from dangerous wounds. The three other boats tried in vain to overcome the numerous and still increasing force opposed to them; and after sustaining a fire for nearly an hour, they were compelled to abandon the enterprise, leaving the barge to her fate. On their return, they were exposed to a very destructive fire from the batteries, which continued until 3 h. 30 m. a. m.; and just as the day dawned the miserable remnant of the expedition reached the frigate. Out of the 90 officers and men who quitted the Galatea, not more than twenty returned unhurt: besides lieutenant Hayman, Mr. Michael Birbeck, the master, and Mr. Wall, midshipman, were among the killed; and lieutenant Ro bert Hall of the marines, who lost an arm, was made prisoner.
The total loss on this occasion amounted to 65 in killed and wounded it would be difficult to state the loss of the enemy, but they acknowledge having had four men killed. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1804. Friday 17th August. Loire captured Blonde.

1804. Saturday 18th August. Lord Melville became The First Lord of the Admiralty.

1804. August. The King authorised the formation of the Royal Marine Artillery (RMA) for service on board the Bomb Ketches and other like vessels, and to man ordnance ashore in support of Naval operations. One company was raised for each division.

Although the Ketches had originally manned by the Army's Royal Regiment of Artillery. A lawsuit by a Royal Artillery officer resulted in a court decision that Army officers were not subject to Naval orders.

As their uniforms were the blue of the Royal Regiment of Artillery, this group was sometimes nicknamed the 'Un-boiled Lobsters' or the 'Blue Marines'. While the Infantry element, who wore the scarlet uniforms of the British infantry, became known as the 'Red Marines', often given the derogatory nickname 'Lobsters' by sailors. A fourth division, known as the Woolwich, was formed on Thursday 15th August 1805, which soldiered on until they were abolished in 1870.

While an Artillery company had been added to each division at the time of the fourth division formation, and in 1854 the seperate title of 'Royal Marine Light Artillery' was conferred and the old artillery companies, by that time increased in number, were constituted as a seperate corps under the name of the 'Royal Marine Artillery'. This Corps headquartered in Portsmouth with fourteen companies.

At that time the total force of the Marines was 29,000 men.

1804. With the formation of the Royal Marine Artillery, Gunners from this new unit were used on specialist ships such as Bomb Vessels and Mortar Boats.
They were volunteers and were less likely to ‘jump ship’ than the pressed seamen. They would be landed with them to deter them from deserting.
During battle they provided extra manpower to operate the guns, small arms and disciplined musketry defence at close quarters. They would also be used as part of prize crews (to man captured ships) and on occasions assist with boarding parties.
They participated in attacks on coastal installations and cutting out (capturing) enemy ships at anchor, as well as protecting watering and foraging parties.
They protected the ship’s officers from the crew and were quartered between them.
They were deployed as sentinels guarding the powder rooms, magazines, the spirit room and other storerooms, and the entrances to the officers’ quarters and ships’ cells.
They assisted in the general sailing and maintenance of the ship when unskilled heavy labour was required, such as hauling ropes when the ship was manoeuvring, turning the capstan to weigh anchor, and embarking heavy stores.
They could not be ordered to go aloft, although if expedient, many did. They could not however, be punished for not showing inclination to do so.
The Marine detachment would form up on deck for all formal occasions and punishments.
In addition to their military duties, Marine officers would undertake watch duty.
As the Royal Navy developed into the steam and iron-clad era Royal Marine detachments focused more on manning the new types of naval guns, and gunnery in general. Training was undertaken at HMS Excellent at Portsmouth, whilst the Royal Marine Artillery eventually built sea service training batteries at their Headquarters at Eastney.
The Royal Marines Light Infantry were also trained in naval gunnery and often manned a ship’s secondary armament.(RMHS)

1804. Saturday 25th August. Immortalite and Bruiser engaged off Boulogne.

1804. Sunday 26th August. Immortalite and consorts engaged, and Constitution sunk.

1804. Saturday 15th September. The 50-gun ship Centurion, when lying in Vizagapatam roads, at 10 a.m. was attacked by the french 74-gun ship Marengo and two 40-gun frigates, who, after an action of thirty minutes, hauled off to seaward; but at 11 h. 15 m. the Marengo and her consorts were again seen approaching, and the 74 having anchored about a mile from the Centurion, recommenced the cannonade, supported occasionally by the Atalante, under sail upon the quarter of the british ship. Hi John, hope you and the family are okay.

At 1 h. 15 m. a shot cut the cable of the Centurion, and about the same time the 74 made sail, accompanied by the frigates, and taking with them the Princess Charlotte indiaman. The Centurion also got under weigh and continued her fire until the enemy was out of gun-shot, having 9 men wounded. Captain Lind, in his official letter, expresses himself much indebted to the zeal and energy of lieutenant Waring of the marines. Intelligence having reached the ministry that an armament was fitting out at Ferrol, and that french troops were on their way thither, the Admiralty despatched a squadron of four frigates, under captain Graham Moore, to intercept four laden frigates, having treasure on board, from Monte Video, bound to Cadiz. On the 5th of October the squadrons met off Cape St. Mary's, and the Spanish rear-admiral refusing to be detained and conducted into an english port, an action ensued; during which one of their frigates exploded, and the other three surrendered, with a loss of 13 killed, and 80 wounded. The english squadron had 2 men killed, and 80 wounded.

That the british government had any right to detain this squadron was more than doubtful, even to those who concurred in the expediency of the measure; but when the alternative was determined upon, it would have been only considerate to have sent a more formidable force to execute the service, in order to have justified the Spanish admiral in surrendering without an appeal to arms. This act of aggression produced an order from the court of Madrid on the 27th of November to make reprisals on english property; but it was not until the 12th of December that the king of Spain issued his formal declaration of war, nor until the 12th of January that Great Britain directed letters of marque to be granted against Spanish vessels and property. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1804. 18th September. Centurion engaged Marengo, Atalante, and Semillante.

1804. Tuesday 18th September. the following letter was sent: “It having been judged expedient to crop the hair of all soldiers liable for foreign-service, The Admiralty order the same to be adopted at the Marine Divisions. This was the end of powdered hair and queues, and no doubt the start of the well-known “short back and sides”!

1804. Wednesday 3rd October. Indefatigable and consorts took or destroyed Fama, Medea, Mercedes, and Clara.

1804. Friday 5th October. The capture of three Spanish Treasure ships of Cadiz. The Captain, officers and crew of the HMS Lively, one of the ships engaged in the capture, gave £50 to Thomas Tough, a Marine who lost his arm in the engagement in testimony of their admiration of his “brave and meritorious conduct in the action”.

1804. Friday 5th October. The Battle of Cape Santa Maria, was a naval action that took place off the southern Portuguese coast, in which a British squadron under the command of Commodore Graham Moore attacked a Spanish squadron Commanded by Brigadier Don José de Bustamantey Guerra, in a time of peace, without a declaration of war between Britain and Spain.

1804. Monday 8th October. Albacore engaged off Gros Nez.

1804. Tuesday 23rd October. Cruiser lost in engagement off Ostend.

1804. General Sir Charles Menzies KCB.,KH., Colonel of the RM Artillery Division, was previously the first Governor of the Australian Convict Settlement at Newcastle NSW.

1804. Nearly ten percent of each company were comprised of foreigners, mainly Maltese, German, Spanish and Portuguese. Each company on paper was to comprise 1 Captain, 2 first Lieutenants, 2 second Lieutenants, 8 Sergeants, 8 Corporals, 6 Drummers and 140 Privates. Each Marine Division also had a grenadier and a light company, (but they were abolished in 1804). With disease, shortages and battle caused deaths, it was highly unlikely that the paper figures were ever met. The Marine companies were dispersed throughout the fleet and where also needed on land.

1804. Lord Melville became first lord of the Admiralty.An order in Council, dated the 18th of August, authorized the formation of a company of artillery at each of the three divisions. The total force of the Marines at this period was 29,000 men. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1804. 'The Royal Marine Artillery in the Crimean War; The Royal Marine Artillery (RMA) was formed as a separate unit in August 1804 to man the artillery in bomb vessels and to man ordnance ashore in support of naval operations. This had been done by the Royal Artillery Regiment, but a lawsuit by a Royal Artillery officer resulted in a court decision that Army officers were not subject to Naval orders. As their uniforms were the blue of the Royal Regiment of Artillery, this group was nicknamed the "Blue Marines" and the Infantry element, who wore the scarlet uniforms of the British infantry, became known as the "Red Marines", often given the derogatory nickname "Lobsters" by sailors. A fourth division, the Woolwich, was formed on August 15th, 1805 which soldiered on until abolished in 1870. An artillery company had been added to each division at the time of the fourth division formation and in 1854 the seperate title of Royal Marine Light Artillery was conferred and the old artillery companies, by that time increased in number, were constituted as a seperate corps under the name of the Royal Marine Artillery. This corps headquartered in Portsmouth with fourteen companies.

The various siege operations during the latter Napoleonic period, Calais in 1810 and other operations along the various coastline points of Europe. Established a tradition within the RMA that kept it a cohesive, functional command while other military organizations across the continent began to lose orientation due to internal hubrus and an aging command hierarchy. The value of the Mortar had made it an integral part of the inventory of the Royal Marine Artillery, bores of 5.5, 8, 10 and 13 inch being the accepted requirers of munitions during the Crimean War period. The 13 inch bore was introduced into RMA service after British forces tasted the receiving end of this large projectile during the Siege of Calais. Engineer James Atkinson Longridge designed the ordnance as used in RMA service during the period in question, one accomplishment among many that spanned the engineering of steam and civil construction works.

Tensions between the governments of Russia and the Ottoman regime of Turkey began to move towards a critical diplomatic mass in 1851, the conflict between the states being conflicts between the Latin and Orthodox factions of Christianity. Precedence in the Holy Lands and the demand that Russia be allowed to protect Orthodox pilgrims in the region with a military force, points unacceptable to the Suleman Turks, led to the breaking off of diplomatic relations on May 18th 1853. An underlying condition that led to the conflict was the fact that the Concert of Europe, the diplomatic accord passed in 1815 with the ending of the Napoleonic wars, was being undermined by Austrian interests in trying to force European conditions to something of a form prior to the French Revolution. These attempts by Austria increased nationalist sentiments in several European nations. When push came to shove Austria and Prussia declared their neutrality on 20th April 1854. Those powers of Central Europe declaring neutrality is, I believe, the major factor in the conflict developing into a naval war, the usual paths toward the invasion of Russia being closed to the Allies. The Russians had entered the Danubian Principalities at the end of July and the Sultan, Abdul Medjid, had been forced by Turkish public opinion to declare war on October 4th, 1853. This at a time that initial engagements between Russian and Turkish forces were occurring in Bulgaria and Romania. A battle occurred between Russian and Turkish naval forces at Sinop, a seaport of Northern Turkey, the first naval engagement of the conflict. A Russian victory ensued the November 30th 1853 , four hour duration battle; Russia fielded Paixhans shell guns, the use of which destroyed eleven ships of Pasha Osman's navy with no Russian losses. The development of explosive shells for use by artillery firing at low levels of elevation was that of Henri-Joseph Paixhans, a French Artillerist born at Metz in 1783. The use of the shells in this battle spelled the end of the wooden navies of the world and the realization of the need for more robust construction techniques, French usage of exploding shells dating from 1827; British usage from 1829 after initial tests of his development of the explosive shell by Paixhan in 1824. The battle was used as justification for British and French declaration of war against Imperial Russia in support of the Ottoman Empire. France declared war on March 27, 1854, with Great Britian following suite the next day.

The British Mediterranean fleet, then under the command of Vice-Admiral James Whitney Deans Dundas, C.B., was ordered to assemble at Malta; soon afterwards directed to proceed to Besika Bay to join with a French Squadron under Vice-Admiral de Lassusse, who had left Toulon on March 23rd, 1853. Lassusse was replaced by Vice-Admiral Ferdinand Alphonse Hamelin due to slow movement in rendezvous. Hamelin having a British line in his family might have been a consideration of his appointment, also. Upon Turkish invitation the combined fleet began to move through the Dardenelles on October 22nd, 1853. On 16th March 1854 the British fleet, under Vice-Admiral Sir Charles John Napier, cast anchor in the Kiel Bight. After receiving fresh reinforcements, Napier approached Gangut with nineteen ships of the line and 26 steamers. The blockade of Russian ports and coasts began. The Russians chose not to attack the Anglo-French forces poised to strike in the Baltic in May, this decision based on lack of organization, the fact that many of the vessels were still in poor condition from being winter ice-bound and the Russian commander in the Baltic, General-Admiral Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich, had insufficient experience in command to decisively operate the Baltic fleet. Vice-Admiral Napier and French Vice-Admiral Parseval-Deshen rejected the idea of attacking the Russian fortresses in the Baltic, their decision based on a lack of troops available for movement ashore.

Unsatisfactory results during the Crimean War operations of 1854 were mainly due to French and British maritime naval forces being ill-equipped for the job before them, the reduction of Russian strongpoints along the Baltic coast, in order to move towards St. Petersburg. The requisite vessels for effective operations in the shallow waters of the Baltic and the shallow outlying parts of the Black Sea, shallow draught steam-powered gunboats and mortar vessels, did not exist in the numbers needed. After the initial attempt at reducing the fortress at Sweaborg by Admiral Dundas the London Times reported that, "Sweaborg is no more." Two days afterward it was proved that the fortress was untouched. Vice-Admiral Sir Charles Napier fired up his pen and responded to the Times stating, "We are defeated by our own triumphs, and all for want of mortars." The Royal Navy in the Baltic at that time did not have a single large mortar in the fleet worthy of use, the few available rusted and subject to bursting upon firing. Napier's caustic use of the press caused him to be superseded by the Admiralty under pressure from First Minister of the Crown Lord Palmerston. Mention is made in some detail in another post on this topic of the effort made by British yards to supply the needs required in a timely manner. Russia utilized the time granted them by British inability to mount decisive attacks by building sixteen screw-propelled gunboats. The French constructed five Mortar Vessels for use in Crimean operations using the designs of naval constructor Pastoureau, the Bombe class, and all vessels constructed at Lorient in 1855. Each vessel had armament comprised of two 32 cm mortars. All five of these seventy-nine foot length vessels were stricken from the active list before 1860, four became water barges. The dearth of Allied equipment usable in the required Crimean operations, plainly made evident by the first Baltic operations, put the spur to Allied building effort. The two former adversaries conversed freely regarding operations and requirements. Sir Baldwin Wake-Walker, Chief Surveyor of the Royal Navy upon appointment in 1848, visited France in the spring of 1854 to exchange ideas concerning gunboats and the British Chief Constructor, Isaac Watts, went over in the autumn to inspect construction. French naval constructors Molle, Mangin, Garnier, Guieysse, Sabatier and Pastoureau, as well as the French Captain of Naval Artillery Sapia, made tours of inspection in England in 1854 and 1855. The entire Russian Navy in 1853, divided among five fleets, consisted of ninety-five warships. The number of personnel in service of the Imperial Russian Navy consisted of 91,000.

The concept of the Bomb Vessel, fleet support vessels intended to work against shore installations, had been a part of the Royal Navy since the 1680's. Brigadier General Sir Samuel Bentham is known to have used a 13 inch bore mortar in 1788 as a low-angle fire weapon, "either point blank or with very little elevation, never, I believe, exceeding ten degrees." This acceptance of a French tactical development was reinstated in naval planning for use in the Crimean War, with contracts being let to three yards for construction after vessels for conversion proved unobtainable. Two types were eventually developed, the mortar vessels, divided into 60-, 65-, 70- and 75-foot types, and the mortar floats. The mortar vessels carried a basic rig on a signal mast, and were armed with a single 13in mortar. The mortar floats had no sails and had to be towed into position, many of the fifty floats constructed becoming dockyard craft after loss of requirement for their primary mission. The nature of the Mortar ordnance caused them to be placed under Royal Marine Artillery responsibility, though at naval command discretion. Four obsolete Frigates that had been converted to steam propulsion were planned as bomb vessels, only one, the Horatio, being completed in 1855 before the success of the Allied operations negated the completion of the remainder. (Sic) (Courtesy of Tom C./

1805. Friday 4th January. Scarcely had the declaration of war been issued by the court of Madrid, than France began to put in requisition the fleets and armies of her new ally. On the 4th of January, three days actually before the Spanish declaration reached London, a secret treaty between the two courts was signed at Paris, by vice-admiral Decres on behalf of France, and by vice-admiral Gravina on the part of Spain. The first article contains a display of the force at the french emperor's disposal, describing the respective flotillas at Ostend, Dunkerque, Calais, Boulogne, and Havre as collectively capable of embarking 120,000 men, and 25,000 horses; whilst in the united ports of Brest, Rochefort, and Toulon, there were thirty-eight sail of the line affording a grand total of 188,000 men. On the part of Spain, she was to furnish twenty-nine ships of the line, and to have from 4000 to 5000 troops ready to embark at Cadiz, in conjunction with 20,000 french infantry. The british government took immediate measures for the increase of every branch of our force and the number of seamen voted for this year, was 120,000, including 30,000 marines. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1805. Monday 28th January. Gipsy destroyed privateer schooner.

1805. Sunday 3rd February. Arrow and Acheron taken by Hortense and Incorruptible.

1805. Friday 8th February. Curieux captured Dame Ernouf.

1805. Wednesday 13th February the 36-gun frigate San Fiorenzo, captain Henry Lambert, near Vizagapatam fell in with the french 32-gun frigate Psyche, having in he company two captured british vessels. After a long chase, the San Fiorenzo was enabled to bring the french frigate to action at 8 p.m. on the 14th, which continued with great fury on both sides until 9 p.m., when the Psyche fell on board her antagonist; but in about a quarter of an hour the ships got clear, and the cannonade recommenced. The french frigate's main-yard was shot away at 9 h. 40 m., but the firing continued with unabated fury until 11 h. 30 m. p.m., when the San Fiorenzo hauled off to reeve new braces, and repair her rigging. At midnight the latter bore up to renew the conflict, and just as she was about to open her broadside, a boat came on board from the Psyche, announcing her surrender. The San Fiorenzo, out of a crew of 253 men and boys, had 12 killed and 36 wounded; among the latter, lieutenant Samuel Ashmore of the marines. The Psyche had three lieutenants and 54 men killed, and 70 wounded, out of a crew of 240 men. The heroic defence of a ship of such inferior force during a close action of more than three hours, reflected the greatest credit on the gallant captain Bergeret; and every Frenchman who is proud of his country's glory, should hold in honourable recollection the determined resistance of the Psyche. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1805. Thursday 14th February. San. Fiorenzo captured Psyche.

1805. Saturday 16th February. At day-break, the 32-gun frigate Cleopatra, captain sir Robert Laurie, when in latitude 28° north, longitude 27° west, went in chase of the french 40-gun frigate Ville de Milan: both ships were under all sail, and the pursuit continued through the night. At day-break on the 17th they were only four miles apart, the Cleopatra still gaining on the enemy. At 10 h. 30m. the Ville de Milan took in her studdingsails and hauled more up; and after some manoeuvre on the part of the french ship to get the weather-gage, a running fight was maintained until 2h. 30 m. p.m., when just as the Cleopatra had arrived within a hundred yards of her opponent, the latter luffed close to the wind and discharged her broadside, which was repeated before the british frigate returned the fire: a warm action then ensued, which continued with great spirit, both ships steering free. At 5 p.m. the main top-sail yard of the Ville de Milan was shot away, and the Cleopatra, being so much disabled as to be incapable of shortening sail, ranged a-head; captain Laurie therefore prepared to cross the bows of his adversary, but just at that moment a shot struck the wheel of the Cleopatra and rendered the rudder ungovernable. Availing herself of the helpless condition of her opponent, the Ville de Milan bore up and gave her the stem, running her head and bowsprit over the latter's quarter-deck, just abaft the main rigging and covered by a heavy fire of musketry the french crew attempted to board, but were repulsed. The Cleopatra was now incapable of further resistance, and in a second attempt the French boarded and took possession of their gallantly defended antagonist. Almost immediately afterwards, the Cleopatra's fore and main-masts went over the side, and her bowsprit soon followed. Out of a crew of 200 men and boys, she had 22 killed and 36 wounded, including among the latter lieutenant Thomas Appleton of the marines. The Ville de Milan, out of a crew of 350, had 1 men killed and several severely wounded.

After refitting the captured ship, the Ville de Milan with her prize, continued her route towards a french port; and on the 23rd, at noon, they were discovered and chased by the 50-gun ship Leander, captain John Talbot. About 3 p. m. the two frigates closed for mutual support, but on the arrival of the Leander within gun-shot, they separated, — the Cleopatra running before the wind, and the Milan with the wind on the starboard quarter. At 4h. 30 m. the Cleopatra, on receiving a shot from the Leander, hauled down her colours, and was immediately taken possession of by her original crew. Observing this, the Leander made sail after the Ville de Milan, and at 5h. 30 m. having arrived alongside, the french ship surrendered without firing a gun (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1805. Sunday 17th February. Cleopatra captured by Ville de Milan.

1805. Saturday 23rd February. Leander re-captured Cleopatra and took Ville de Milan.

1805. Wednesday 20th March. Renard blew up General Ernouf.

1805. Saturday 23rd March. Boats of Stork captured Antelope and a brig.

1805. Friday 29th of March. A french squadron of eleven sail of the line and six frigates, under vice-admiral Villeneuve, having 3500 troops on board, sailed from Toulon; and on the 8th of April they stood into the bay of Cadiz, driving away vice-admiral sir John Orde, with his five sail of the line.

Receiving a reinforcement of five Spanish and one french ship of the line, vice-admiral Villeneuve quitted Cadiz on the 9th; when this combined fleet, consisting of seventeen sail of the line, six frigates, and three brigs, steered a westerly course; but owing to contrary winds and calms, they did not reach Martinique until the 13th of May, and on the 16th they were joined by the Spanish 80-gun ship San Rafael. On the 3rd of April vice-admiral lord Nelson was apprized by the Phoebe frigate of the french fleet being at sea: not gaining any intimation of their route, and surmising their course would be westward, his lordship made sail in that direction; and on the 17th, information was obtained of the enemy having passed the straits. The prevalence of strong southerly and westerly winds made it the 30th ere lord Nelson got sight of Gibraltar; and it was not until the 7th of May that the squadron passed through the straits. Having anchored in Lagos bay, and obtained a supply of provisions from the british transports, the vice-admiral with the Victory, Canopus, Superb, Spencer, Swiftsure, Belleisle, Conqueror, Tigre, Leviathan, and three frigates, crowded sail to the westward on the 1 1th, in pursuit of the combined fleet. After touching at Madeira on the 15th, the admiral gained intelligence on the 3rd of June, of the enemy being in the West Indies; and on thd 4th, the british fleet anchored in Carlisle bay, where they were joined by the Northumberland and Spartiate. Here the squadron embarked 2000 troops, and then proceeded towards Tobago and Trinidad; but on the 7th the vice-admiral, finding that he had been misled, altered his course, and on the 9th arrived off Grenada, where lord Nelson received accounts that the enemy had passed the island of Dominique on the 6th, steering to the northward, On the 13th the british fleet arrived at Antigua, where the troops were disembarked ; and leaving the Northumberland as the flag-ship of admiral Cochrane, Lord Nelson stood to the northward with his eleven ships of the line, in the hope of reaching the shores of Europe before the enemy could arrive there.

To return to vice-admiral Villeneuve: we find that two french line of battle ships joined his fleet on the 5th of June, when at Martinique, and after embarking a portion of that garrison, he proceeded with an intention of reducing some of the windward islands; but learning that the british squadron was close upon his heels, the french admiral hastily got rid of his military force and bent his course towards Ferrol. After capturing several english merchant-men, and having recaptured the Spanish galleon Matilda, the combined fleet of twenty sail of the line arrived off Cape Finisterre on the 9th of July. Lord Nelson also hastened towards Europe, and on the 18th fell in with three ships of the line under vice-admiral Collingwood. On the 19th the squadron arrived at Gibraltar, and having replenished the water and provisions, repassed the straits on the 28th, and reached England on the 16th of August.

Soon after the arrival of the combined fleet off Cape Finisterre on the 9th of July, a violent gale from the northeast sprang up, which slightly damaged some of the ships: the wind moderated but continued to blow from the same adverse quarter until the 20th. On the 22nd, in the forenoon, the enemy's force of twenty sail of the line, consisting of seven ships of 80 guns, eleven of 74 guns, and two of 64 guns, seven frigates, two brigs, and the galleon, were steering in a thick fog towards Ferrol, in three divisions, with a light breeze from west-north-west; when on a sudden clearing up of the weather, ten sail of the line were signalled by their advanced ship, approaching on the starboard tack, and presently twenty-one were discovered.

The strangers were fifteen british ships of the line, two frigates, a cutter, and a lugger, under vice-admiral sir Robert Calder, who after making the necessary preparatory signals, formed his fleet in line of battle as follows: — Hero 74, Ajax £4, Triumph 74, Barfleur 98, Agamemnon 64, Windsor Castle 98, Defiance 74, Prince of Wales 98 vice-admiral sir Robert Calder, Repulse 74, Raisonable 64, Dragon 74, Glory 98 rear-admiral Stirling, Warrior 74, Thunderer 74, and Malta of 80 guns.

About the same time the combined fleet arranged themselves in line of battle, and under top-sails stood on upon the larboard
tack, rather off the wind, in a close well-formed line; one frigate a-head, another astern with the galleon in tow, and the remaining five frigates to windward of the centre and rear. At this time the British were nearly a-beam, and about seven miles distant; but owing to the fog, neither fleet was more than partially in sight of each other.

At 3 h. 20 m. p. m. the signal was made to engage the enemy, and immediately afterwards for the fleet to tack together; but this was annulled, and the ships, having been ordered to make all possible sail and steer south-south-west, were at 4h. 21m. directed to tack in succession. The signal to this effect was made by each commander-in-chief about the same time, but the weather being so foggy, neither fleet observed the commencement of the other's manoeuvre. The British tacked to prevent their opponents escaping them on the opposite tack and the enemy, who had hauled close to the wind, on approaching within three miles of the british fleet wore round, in consequence of signal-guns in quick succession from the sternmost frigate, signifying that the rear was in danger.

This was occasioned by the bold approach of the Sirius, who had tacked with the intention of attempting to carry, by boarding, the galleon in tow of the frigate. At that moment the Spanish 80-gun ship Argonauta was discerned through the haze, approaching with the wind nearly a-beam this compelled captain Prowse to relinquish his design upon the galleon, and seek his own safety; and in effecting this, the Sirius had to pass to leeward of the enemy's line: fortunately, neither of the three Spanish line-of-battle ships considered her inferiority worthy of their notice. At abo^it 5h. 15 m. the Hero, the british van-ship, hove in stays; and the Spanish ships, all of whom had royals and courses set, instantly hoisted their colours, and commenced the action, the Argonauta firing her larboard guns at the Hero, and the Espana her's at the Sirius, which killed two men, and wounded three on board the frigate.

The Ajax tacked astern of the Hero, but instead of supporting captain Gardner in his bold manoeuvre, captain Brown bore away to acquaint the admiral with the change in the enemy's van, and the Ajax then fell into the line astern of the Glory thus making herself the twelfth, instead of the second, ship from the van. The british ships successively tacked, and by 6 p. m., with the exception of the Dragon, who was still to leeward working up, the whole had got round on the starboard tack, and the greater part found opponents in the opposite line; but what with the fog and the smoke, no ship could see much beyond her own length. Owing to the disorder arising from this circumstance, some ships in both fleets had several opponents at the same time. On the british side the Windsor Castle was the principal sufferer; and the Ajax, Prince of Wales, Thunderer, and Malta, the last especially, took part in this unequal contest. Of the ombined fleet, the San Rafael, Firme, and Espana, having dropped to leeward, became generally exposed to the fire of the British. The Firme's critical situation called the attention of captain Cosmao Kerjulien, of the french-74 Pluton, who gallantly bore up out of the line, and for awhile covered the Spanish ship from the destructive fire to which she was exposed; but the Firme was too powerfully opposed to profit by the aid of her ally, and the Pluton herself with difficulty regained her station. Shortly afterwards the french ship bore up a second time to interpose herself between the Espana and the powerful fire of the british line: and with the assistance of the Mont Blanc and Atlas, captain Kerjulien succeeded in rescuing the Espana. The Atlas suffered most severely, and but for the support of the Neptune and some others, would certainly have been captured.

The Firme, having lost her mizen-masts, surrendered about 8 p.m., and shortly afterwards her fore-mast went over the side. The San Rafael, with loss of main top-mast, and subsequently of all her masts, also struck, and both ships were taken possession of. It was about 8 h. 30 m. when sir Robert Calder made the night-signal to discontinue the action, at which time the british ships were much scattered, and the combined fleet barely within gun-shot to windward; and as the signal of the british admiral was observed but by few ships of his fleet, the general firing did not cease until 9 h. 30 m. p.m. Shortly afterwards the fleet brought to on the starboard tack, and lay by repairing damages, in order to renew the contest on the morrow.

The total loss sustained by the british fleet amounted to 39 officers and men killed, and 159 wounded; while the gross amount of killed and wounded in the combined fleet is stated to have been 476.

At day-break on the 23rd the two fleets were about seventeen miles apart; and owing to the hazy state of the morning they were but partially visible to each other: but the advanced squadrons of the respective fleets were within six miles. Far to leeward, and out of sight of the admiral, were the Malta, Thunderer, the two frigates and prizes; whilst between them and the main body lay the crippled Windsor Castle, in tow of the Dragon. Having concentrated his fleet, the british admiral, at 9 h. a.m., hauled up on the larboard tack, steering to the northeast, keeping between the enemy and his three disabled ships the Windsor Castle being in tow of the Dragon, the San Rafael of the Egyptienne, and the Firme of the Sirius. Towards noon the combined fleet, formed in order of battle, bore up towards the British, then about four leagues distant in the east-south-east; but owing to the lightness of the breeze, it was not until 3 h. 10 m. that their advance was noticed bv their opponents, who immediately hoisted their colours, and by hauling closer to the wind, awaited the expected attack. At 4 p.m. the enemy, with colours also hoisted, and then distant about three leagues from the British, hauled to the wind on the same tack, thus declining a renewal of the engagement.

At 8 a.m. on the 24th the wind, having shifted to north-east, brought the combined fleet nearly astern of the British, now to windward, and might in all probability have recommenced the action; but sir Robert continued with his prizes under easy sail, steering about south-east by east, working towards a british port, whilst the enemy edged away south-east by south; and by 6 p.m. the two fleets had wholly disappeared from each other. Admiral Villeneuve, with his eighteen sail of the line, reached the port of Vigo on the 26th, and having refitted his fleet, quitted that anchorage with thirteen french and two Spanish ships of the line on the 30th, and arrived at Corunna on the 1st of August.

On the 11th the combined fleet, reinforced by a squadron from Ferrol, amounting to twenty-nine ships of the line, put to sea; and on the 20th this formidable armament anchored in Cadiz harbour, where they found six Spanish ships, thus forming a total of thirty-five sail of the line and several frigates.

The british squadron cruising off that port consisted of the Dreadnought, bearing the flag of vice-admiral Collingwood, and the two seventy-fours Colossus and Achille, who were reinforced by four sail of the line on the 22nd; and on the 30th sir Robert Calder joined with eighteen line-of-battle ships. Lord Nelson, in the Victory, arrived from Portsmouth on the 28th of September, to take the chief command of the Mediterranean fleet, which now consisted of twenty-seven sail of the line; twenty-two of which cruised about fifteen miles off Cadiz, while the remaining five, under rear-admiral Louis, were stationed close to the harbour, to watch the motions of the enemy. Between the 1st and the 17th of October there had been several interchanges of ships: six were detached to Gibraltar for provisions and water, and sir Robert Calder returned to England in the Prince of Wales; whilst on the other hand the Royal Sovereign, Belleisle, Africa, and Agamemnon had joined, so that the fleet still amounted to twenty-seven ships of the line, four frigates, a schooner, and a cutter.

It has been stated, that on the very day his lordship arrived to take the command of the Mediterranean fleet, vice-admiral Villeneuve received the french emperor's commands to proceed to sea. These orders had been issued in the preceding month, requiring that the fleet should pass the straits; and having landed the troops on the coast of Italy, to sweep the Mediterranean of all british vessels, and then enter the port of Toulon to refit.

The french troops having embarked on the 10th of October, the combined fleet moved to the entrance of the harbour in readiness to start. From the 10th to the 17th it continued to blow hard from the westward, with but little intermission; but at midnight on the 17th the wind shifted to the eastward, and on the 18th vice-admiral Villeneuve determined on putting to sea. At 7 a.m. on the 19th, the combined fleet, by signal, got under way, with a light breeze at north by east; but owing to the lightness of the wind, only twelve ships succeeded in getting out, and these lay becalmed until early in the afternoon, when a breeze springing up from the west-north-west, they stood to the northward, accompanied by the british frigates, Sirius and Euryalus. At daylight on the morning of the 20th, the remainder of the combined fleet quitted the port with a light breeze at south-east, consisting, with the ships already outside, of thirty-three sail of the line, five frigates, and two brigs.

Every movement of the enemy was reported by the british frigates, and the communication conveyed to the commander in-chief by intermediate ships, stationed at convenient distances from each other. It was on the 19th, at 9 h. 30m. a.m., while the british fleet was lying to, about sixteen leagues west-south-west from Cadiz, that the Mars came running down, with the signal flying that the enemy was coming out of port. All sail was immediately made in chase to the south-east, with a light breeze from the south-south-west; and some ships were ordered o lead the fleet, and to carry a light during the night.

Every movement of the enemy was reported by the british frigates, and the communication conveyed to the commander in-chief by intermediate ships, stationed at convenient distances from each other. It was on the 19th, at 9 h. 30m. a.m., while the british fleet was lying to, about sixteen leagues west-south-west from Cadiz, that the Mars came running down, with the signal flying that the enemy was coming out of port. All sail was immediately made in chase to the south-east, with a light breeze from the south-south-west; and some ships were ordered o lead the fleet, and to carry a light during the night.

At daylight on the 20th, the British found themselves at the entrance of the straits, but nothing of the enemy was to be seen the fleet therefore wore, and made sail to the north-west, with a fresh breeze at south- south-west. At 7 the enemy was signalled north; and by noon the british fleet was about nine leagues south-west of Cadiz. At 2 p. m. they were taken a-back by a breeze from west-north-west, and at 4 p.m. stood to the northward. At 8h. 40 m. a.m. the british fleet wore to the south-west; and at 4 a.m. on Monday the 21st they again wore and steered under easy sail to the north by east.

At 6 a. m., Cape Trafalgar bearing east by south, distant about seven leagues, the combined fleet was seen from the Victory, and nearly at the same time by the whole british fleet, bearing about east and by south, and distant about ten miles. At 6h. 40m. a.m. the Victory made the signal to form the order of sailing in two columns, and to prepare for battle, and in another ten minutes to bear up. This prompt mode of attack had been previously directed by lord Nelson, in order to avoid the inconvenience and delay of forming a line of battle in the usual manner.

The french admiral, considering the near approach of the british fleet rendered an action unavoidable, made the signal at 8 h. 30 m. for his ships to wear together, and form line in close order upon the larboard tack, thereby bringing the harbour of Cadiz on his lee-bow. Owing to the lightness of the wind, it was near 10 a.m. before the manoeuvre was completed; and even then, the line was so very irregular, that it was more in the form of a crescent, particularly towards the rear. Some ships were to leeward, others to windward of their proper stations, and they were generally two, and in a few instances three deep thus accidentally presenting a far more formidable opposition, than if each ship had been in the wake of her leader. They were mostly under top-sails and top-gallant sails, with the main-top sail shivering, steering a point or two off the wind.

The british fleet made but slow progress, not going more than a knot and half an hour with all sail set: the Victory leading the weather, and the Royal Sovereign the lee column, in th following order of battle:
Battle of Trafalgar.
Victory, 100 guns, vice-admiral lord Nelson (killed), captain T. M. Hardy, 57 killed, 102 wounded. Captain Charles Wm. Adair (killed), first-lieutenant James G. Peake (wounded), second-lieutenant Lewis Buckle Reeves (wounded), secondlieutenant Lewis Rotely.
Temeraire, 98 guns, captain E. Harvey, 47 killed, and 76 wounded. Captain Simon Busigny (mortally wounded), second-lieutenant William N. Roe, second-lieutenant Samuel J. Payne (wounded), second-lieutenant John Kingston (killed).
Neptune, 98 guns, captain T. F. Freemantle, 10 killed, 34 wounded. First-lieutenant George Kendall, second-lieutenant William Burton, second-lieutenant Lewis Rooke.
Leviathan, 74 guns, captain H. W. Bayntum, 4 killed, 22 wounded. Captain George P. Wingrove, first-lieutenant Nathaniel Cole, first-lieutenant Thomas J. W. Tane.
Britannia, 100 guns, rear-admiral earl of Northesk, captain C. Bullen, 10 killed, 42 wounded. Captain Alexander Watson, first-lieutenant William Jackson, second-lieutenant L. B. J. Halloran, second-lieutenant John Cooke.
Conqueror, 74 guns, captain J. Pellew, 3 killed, 9 wounded. Captain James Atcherly, second-lieutenants Patrick Toole, and Thomas Wearing (wounded).
Africa, 64 guns, captain Henry Digby, 18 killed, 44 wounded. Captain James Fynmore (wounded), first-lieutenant Thomas Brattle.
Agamemnon, 64 guns, captain sir E. Berry, 2 killed, 7 wounded. Captain H. B. Downing, second-lieutenant Herbert Raban, second-lieutenant Donald Campbell.
Ajax, 74 guns, lieutenant J. Pilfold, 2 killed, 9 wounded. Captain David Boyd, second-lieutenant J. Cinnamond, secondlieutenant Samuel B. Ellis.
Orion, 74 guns, captain E. Codrington, 1 killed, 23 wounded. Captain Henry VV. Creswell, second-lieutenant Stephen Bridgman.
Minotaur, 74 guns, captain C. M. Mansfield, 3 killed, 22 wounded. Captain Paul Hunt, second-lieutenant Nathaniel B. Grigg, second-lieutenant Thomas Reeves.
Spartiate, 74 guns, captain sir F. Lafoi'ey, 3 killed, 20 wounded. First-lieutenant Samuel Hawkins, first-lieutenant John R. Coryton, second-lieutenant G. D. Hawkins.
Royal Sovereign, 100 guns, vice-admiral C. Collingwood, captain E. Rotheram, 47 killed, 94 wounded. Captain Joseph Vallack, second-lieutenant Robert Green (killed), secondlieutenant Armiger Wm. Hubbard, second-lieutenant James Le Vescomte (wounded).
Belleisle, 74 guns, captain W. Hargood (wounded), 34 killed, 96 wounded. First-lieutenant John Owen (wounded), second-lieutenant John Weaver, second-lieutenant Paul Harris Nicolas.
Mars, 74 guns, captain G. Duff (killed), 29 killed, 69 wounded. Captain Thos. Norman, second-lieutenant Charles Holmes, second-lieutenant Robert Guthrie.
Tonnant, 80 guns, captain C. Tyler (wounded), 26 killed, 50 wounded. Captain Arthur Ball, second-lieutenant James Cottle, first-lieutenant William Magin.
Bellerophon, 74 guns, captain J. Cooke (killed), 27 killed, 123 wounded. Captain James Wemyss (wounded), second- lieutenants John Wilson (2nd), Peter Connolly, and Luke Higgins.
Colossus, 74 guns, captain J. Morris (wounded), 40 killed, 160 wounded. Captain Elias Lawrence, second-lieutenant William Laurie, second-lieutenant John Benson (wounded).
Achille, 74 guns, captain R. King, 13 killed, 59 wounded. Captain Palms Westropp (wounded), second-lieutenants William Liddon (wounded), and Francis Whalley.
Dreadnought, 98 guns, captain J. Conn, 7 killed, 26 wounded. Captain Thomas Timmins, first-lieutenants John M'Cullum and Thomas Lemon, second-lieutenant David Manley.
Polyphemus, 64 guns, captain Robert Redmill, 2 killed, 4 wounded. Captain Michael Percival, first-lieutenant John Mackintosh, second-lieutenant Charles Stewart.
Revenge, 74 guns, captain R. Moorsom (wounded), 28 killed, 51 wounded. Captain Peter Lely (wounded), secondlieutenant Arthur Copperthwaite, second-lieutenant Henry Blackler Fairtlough.
Swiftsure, 74 guns, captain H. G. Rutherford, 9 killed, 8 wounded. First-lieutenant William Gibbins, first-lieutenant Robert Gordon, second-lieutenant Henry Miller.
Defiance, 74 guns, captain P. C. Durham (wounded), 17 killed, 53 wounded. Captain Basil Alves, second-lieutenant George Bristow.
Thunderer, 74 guns, lieutenant J. Stockham, 4 killed, 12 wounded. Captain Gilbert Elliott, second-lieutenant William Hockley, second-lieutenant John Lister.
Defence, 74 guns, captain G. Hope, 7 killed, 29 wounded. Captain Henry Cox, first-lieutenant John Wilson (1st), second-lieutenant Alfred Burton.
Prince, 98 guns, captain R. Grind all. Captain Francis Williams, second-lieutenant Edward Pengelley, second-lieutenant John Shillibeer.
Total, — 450 killed, 1244 wounded.

Phoebe, first-lieutenant Mortimer Timson; Euryalus, lieutenant John S and ford; Naiad, lieutenants Edward Jones and P. S. Perkins; Sirius, lieutenants Thomas Moore and William Murray. The direction in which the combined fleet now lay, with a home port scarcely seven leagues on their lee-bow, induced lord Nelson to telegraph to his second in command, " I intend to pass through the van of the enemy's line, to prevent him from getting into Cadiz;" and as the shoals of San Pedro and Trafalgar were under the lee of both fleets, his lordship, in order to guard against that danger, made the signal " Prepare to anchor after close of day." Shortly afterwards that emphatic message of " England expects every man to do his duty," was communicated to the fleet by telegraph. The inspiring sentiment excited the most lively enthusiasm and was greeted by hearty cheers on board of every ship.

Having already described the formation of the combined line of battle, it is only necessary to observe, that the commanderin-chief in the Bucentaure, with the Santissima Trinidada, his second, a-head, were directly in front of the Victory; the Santa Ana, bearing the flag of vice-admiral D'Alava, was in the same direction from the Royal Sovereign; whilst the Spanish commander-in-chief, admiral Gravina, in the Principe d'Asturias, was the rearmost ship of the combined fleet, which formed? nearly as follows: —

Neptuno 80, Scipion 74, Intrepide 74, Rayo 100, Formidable 80, Dugnay Trouin 74, Mont Blanc 74, San Francisco d'Asis 74, San Augustin 74, Heros 74, Santissima Trinidada 130, Bucentaure 74, Neptune 80, San Leandro 64, Redoutable 74, San Justo 80, Indomptable 80, Santa Ana 112, Fougueux 74, Monarca 74, Pluton 74, Algesiras 74, Bahama 74, Aigle 74, Swiftsure 74, Argonaute 74, Montanez 74, Argonauta 80, Berwick 74, San Juan Nepornuceno 74, San Ildefonso 74, Achille 74, Principe d'Asturias 112. It was just at noon, the wind very light, the sea smooth, with a heavy ground-swell setting from the westward, and the sun shining beautifully upon the fresh-painted sides of the long line of the french and Spanish ships, when the ship next to the Santa Ana, the Fougueux, opened her fire upon the Royal Sovereign. The british fleet immediately hoisted their colours, and the Victory made the signal for close action: about the same time the enemy also hoisted their ensigns, and the admirals, with the exception of vice-admiral Villeneuve, their flags.

Neptuno 80, Scipion 74, Intrepide 74, Rayo 100, Formidable 80, Dugnay Trouin 74, Mont Blanc 74, San Francisco d'Asis 74, San Augustin 74, Heros 74, Santissima Trinidada 130, Bucentaure 74, Neptune 80, San Leandro 64, Redoutable 74, San Justo 80, Indomptable 80, Santa Ana 112, Fougueux 74, Monarca 74, Pluton 74, Algesiras 74, Bahama 74, Aigle 74, Swiftsure 74, Argonaute 74, Montanez 74, Argonauta 80, Berwick 74, San Juan Nepornuceno 74, San Ildefonso 74, Achille 74, Principe d'Asturias 112.

It was just at noon, the wind very light, the sea smooth, with a heavy ground-swell setting from the westward, and the sun shining beautifully upon the fresh-painted sides of the long line of the french and Spanish ships, when the ship next to the Santa Ana, the Fougueux, opened her fire upon the Royal Sovereign. The british fleet immediately hoisted their colours, and the Victory made the signal for close action: about the same time the enemy also hoisted their ensigns, and the admirals, with the exception of vice-admiral Villeneuve, their flags.

At ten minutes past noon, the Royal Sovereign having reached a position elose astern of the Santa Ana, discharged her guns double shotted into her, and with her starboard broadside distantly raked the Fougueux. It was just at this moment that lord Nelson, observing the enviable position of his friend, exclaimed, " See, how nobly Collingwood carries his ship into action/' The Royal Sovereign then ranged close alongside of the three-decker to leeward, and a tremendous cannonade ensued between these two powerful ships; but besides this equal contest the british ship had other opponents. About 400 yards a-head lay the San Leandro, who bearing away raked the Sovereign, while the Fougueux kept up a galling fire astern: she was also exposed to the occasional fire of the San Justo and Indomptable, within 300 yards, on her bow and quarter; but finding they were sustaining injury from their own cross fire, and the near approach of other british ships, the four two deckers drew off' from the Royal Sovereign, leaving her closely engaged with the Santa Ana.

For upwards of fifteen minutes the Royal Sovereign was the only british ship in close action, and she had taken a position upon the lee-bow of her opponent, when the Belleisle fired her broadside into the stern of the Santa Ana, and then bore away for the Indomptable. Just at this time the mizen topmast of the Spanish three-decker was shot away, and at the end of about an hour and a quarter from the commencement of the battle, her three masts had fallen over the side; and after a severe contest of a little more than two hours, the Santa Ana struck her colours. At this period the mizen-mast of the After sustaining the tremendous fire opened upon her from the centre and rear of the combined line for more than twenty minutes, and having, notwithstanding the precaution of the men lying down a-fore and aft, suffered a loss of above 50 in killed and wounded: her sails and rigging cut to pieces, and her mizen top-mast over the side, the Belleisle, at thirty minutes past noon discharged a treble-shotted broadside into the stern of the Santa Ana, and with her starboard guns exchanged some shot with the Fougueux; then bearing away a little, she passed under the stern of the Indomptable, who quickly wearing, exchanged a few broadsides with her, and bore away to the southeast. At about forty-five minutes past noon the Belleisle's main top-mast was shot away, and as the enemy's rear were now pressing forward to support the centre, the british ship's situation became extremely critical.

At 1 p. m. the Fougueux ranged up in the smoke on the Belleisle's starboard beam and striking her at the gangway with her larboard bow, dropped alongside. After both ships had engaged for about a quarter of an hour, during which the mizen mast of the Belleisle fell over her larboard quarter, the Fougueux dropped astern, and hauling to the northward ran on board the Temeraire. At 1 h. 30 m. p.m. the french Achille, ranging past the stern of the Belleisle, stationed herself on the latter's larboard quarter, and kept up a steady fire with comparative impunity, while the Aigle engaged her, distantly, on the starboard side; and as the Leandro and San Justo passed ahead on their way to join admiral Gravina in the rear, they opened a fire on the british ship.

Thus, in a manner surrounded, the Belleisle, at 2 h. 1.0 m. p.m., had her main-mast shot away about four feet above the deck, which failing aft on the break of the poop, with the wreck already over her larboard side, disabled the guns, and prevented her from returning the Achille's destructive fire. At 2 h. 30 m. the french Neptune, driven from her station upon the bows of the Victory and Temeraire by the approach of the Leviathan, placed herself across the starboard bow of the Belleisle, who was still engaged by two other ships; and at 2 h. 45 m. the fore-mast and bowsprit of this almost helpless ship were shot away by the board.

At 3 h. 15 m. the Polyphemus having interposed herself between the Belleisle and the Neptune, the latter stood on towards the rear; and shortly afterwards the Defiance took off the fire of the Aigle. The british Swiftsure next approached and passing close to the stern of the Belleisle as she lay covered in the wreck of her masts and sails, with the english colours fastened to the stump of her mizen-mast, manned her rigging, cheered the gallantly defended ship, and then opened her fire upon the Achille. Thus, relieved by the timely arrival of her friends, from the overwhelming force around her, the Belleisle ceased firing at about 3 h. 30 m. p.m.: captain Hargood observing that a Spanish two-decker had already surrendered, sent the master and lieutenant John Owen, the senior officer of marines (who volunteered, although wounded) to take possession of the 80gun ship Argonauta. On board the Belleisle eight marines were killed; lieutenant Owen, and 19 wounded.

The Mars following the Belleisle, suffered severely from the heavy raking fire to which she was exposed, particularly from the San Juan, Monarca, Pluton, and Algesiras; and directing her course to pass between the first two of these ships, the Pluton ranged a-head and became engaged with the Mars, who had also found opponents in the Monarca and Algesiras; but the Tonnant coming up, soon gave full employment for both those ships. The Mars then had her attention called to the Fougueux; and after receiving her broadside, as the latter hauled off from the Belleisle, she was severely raked astern by the Pluton, from which ship a cannon-shot killed captain Duff, when standing on the break of the quarter-deck. By this time, on the approach of other british ships, the Pluton stood away to the south-east to join admiral Gravina; whilst the Fougueux made off to the northward in the direction of the Temeraire.

The main top-mast and spanker-boom of the Mars were shot away, and her masts were so much injured that they all fell by the board during the gale on the following day. Eight marines were killed; captain Thomas Norman and 16 wounded, on board the Mars.

The Tonnant, after firing at the ships which pressed upon the Mars, steered for the larboard bow of the Algesiras, then standing slowly onwards in the line, and very near to her leader, the Monarca; but the french ship backing her main and mizen top-sails as the Tonnant advanced, the latter was enabled to pass under the stern of the Monarca, and then range up alongside the Spanish ship, who soon dropped astern and struck her colours, although she afterwards rehoisted them. At this time the Tonnant had her fore top-mast and main-yard shot away, when the Algesiras, making sail, endeavoured to cross her stern; but the latter putting her helm a-port, defeated the manoeuvre, and ran the Algesiras on board. The bowsprit and anchors of the Algesiras getting entangled in her opponent's main rigging, the two ships remained fast together, greatly to the advantage of the Tonnant; who, while engaged with her principal antagonist, had to contend with the San Juan on her larboard bow, and the Monarca, who had rehoisted her colours, on her quarter. At about 1 h. 10 m. captain Tyler received a severe wound, which compelled him to resign the command to lieutenant John Bedford, and an animated fire was maintained by the two ships; during which the Algesiras lost her fore-mast, and the Tonnant her main and mizen top-masts. The french ship now made a serious attempt to board but the marines of the Tonnant under captain Arthur Ball, kept up so steady and well-directed a fire, that the assailants were repulsed. At about 2 h. 15 m. p.m., just as the main and mizen-masts of the Algesiras were about to share the fate of her fore-mast, the gallantlydefended ship struck her colours; and lieutenant Bennett, with captain Ball of the marines and 50 men, stepped on board and took possession of her. In another quarter of an hour the San Juan also surrendered. Nine marines were killed, and 16 wounded on board the Tonnant: the Algesiras had upwards of 200 men killed and wounded, including several officers; and among them, mortally wounded, the brave and respected rearadmiral Magon.

The Bellerophon, from being at some distance astern of the Tonnant, and owing to the lightness of the wind, did not cut through the enemy's line for more than a quarter of an hour after the latter ; and passing under the stern of the Monarca, as the Spanish ship, with colours rehoisted, was dropping away from the Tonnant, the Bellerophon, at about 50 minutes past noon, ran foul of the Aigie, the latter's main-yard locking with her fore-yard ; and whilst thus closely engaged with an opponent of equal force, the Bellerophon sustained the fire of the Monarca and Montanez to windward, and the Bahama and french Swiftsure on either quarter. In this unequal contest the Bellerophon suffered severely; and at 1 p. m. her main and mizen top-masts fell over the starboard side; shortly afterwards captain Cooke was killed, and the command devolved on lieutenant Pryce Camby. The Swiftsure and Montanez then became engaged with the Colossus; and at 1 h. 40 m. p.m. the Aigle, after several ineffectual attempts to board, having dropped astern, was exposed to a raking fire from her opponent, as well as from the Revenge. The Bellerophon, now in an unmanageable state, took possession of the Monarca, and subsequently of the Bahama, who had surrendered to the destructive fire of the Colossus. Four marines were killed, captain Wemyss and 20 wounded, on board the Bellerophon.

At about 1 p.m. the Colossus ran past the starboard side of the french Swiftsure, as she edged away to bring her larboard guns to bear on the quarter of the Bellerophon, and owing to the density of the smoke, nothing was visible to leeward until the Colossus found herself close alongside the Argonaute, whose larboard yard-arms were locked in her starboard ones. After a smart cannonade, which lasted about a quarter of an hour, the Argonaute's fire slackened, and as she paid off, she received a heavy raking broadside from the Colossus. It was just as the french ship had receded, that captain Morris received a severe wound a little above the knee; but the gallant officer, having applied a tourniquet, did not quit the deck. In the mean while the Colossus was warmly engaged with the Swiftsure on the larboard quarter, and with the Bahama, who kept up a galling fire across the Swiftsure's fore-foot; but on the latter dropping astern, the Bahama occupied the entire attention of the Colossus, whose well-directed fire soon brought down the main-mast of the Spanish ship and compelled her to make sisms of having; surrendered. The french Swiftsure now endeavoured to bear up under the stern of the Colossus but the latter wearing more quickly, poured in her starboard broadside, which brought down the Swiftsure's mizen-mast; and the Bellerophon in passing having knocked away her main-mast, the french ship surrendered to the Colossus, who, in hauling up to take possession of the two prizes, lost her wounded mizen-mast over the starboard side. Her other masts were much disabled, and the main- mast went during the ensuing night. Eight marines were killed on board the Colossus, and lieutenant John Benson and 31 wounded.

The Achille, following closely after the Colossus, passed under the stern of the Montanez, and luffed up alongside of her to leeward; but in less than a quarter of an hour, the Spanish ship sheered off, and the Achille bore away to succour the Belleisle, then lying partly dismasted, with three enemy's ships upon her. On her way down, the Achille became engaged with the Argo nauta, until the Spanish colours were hauled down. At that moment two french ships claimed the attention of the Achille, who had to contend with her french namesake to windward; whilst the Berwick, after being distantly engaged with the Defence, ranged up on the british ship's starboard side, between her and the Argonauta. The two ships continued in close action for upwards of an hour, when the Berwick hauled down her colours, and was taken possession of by the Achille. In the mean time, the french Achille had passed on in the direction of the Belleisle, and the Argonauta dropped to leeward. Six marines were among the killed; captain Palms Westropp lost an arm, lieutenant William Liddon and 14 men wounded. The Berwick lost her captain, and above 200 men in killed and wounded.

Continuing the proceedings of the lee division of the british fleet, the Dreadnought next claims our attention. It was about 2 p.m. when that ship got into action with the San Juan, who was then surrounded by the Principe de Asturias, San Justo, and the Indomptable. At about 2 h. 20 m. the Dreadnought ran on board of and captured the San Juan, who, having previously been engaged by the Tonnant, Bellerophon, and some other ships, was nearly in a defenceless state the Dreadnought, therefore, without waiting to take possession of this severely-handled ship, stood on towards the Principe de Asturias; but after two or three broadsides the Spanish three-decker made sail, and with several other ships effected her escape. One marine was killed and 4 wounded on board the Dreadnought.

The Polyphemus, after hauling to starboard to allow the Dreadnought to close with the Spanish three-decker, was obliged to wait until the Swiftsure had passed a-head before she could resume her station. It was at about 3 h. 25 m. when the Swiftsure, after crossing the Belleisle's stern, opened her fire upon the french Achille, as the latter, passing along the larboard beam of the Belleisle, edged away to the south-east, followed and engaged by the Swiftsure, who presently succeeded in crossing her opponent's stern, and getting to leeward of her.

The Polyphemus about this time, after receiving a heavy fire from the french Neptune, in passing between that ship and the Belleisle, had advanced on the Achille's weather-quarter. In about half an hour after the Svviftsure commenced firing on the Achille, the latter had her mizen-mast and fore-yard shot away, and having taken fire in the fore-top, she ceased to engage but the Prince bore down in time to assist in silencing this nobly defended ship. The Polyphemus then stood away towards the Defence, who was engaged with the San Ildefonso; but the Spanish colours were hauled down before the Polyphemus could take part in the action. Two marines were killed on board the Svviftsure, and one marine wounded.

In attempting to pass through the enemy's line, the Revenge stood so close a-head of the Aigle, that the jib-boom of the french ship caught the mizen top-sail of her antagonist and enabled her to pour two deliberate broadsides into her bows before the two ships got clear. The Revenge then stood on, and while hauling up on the larboard tack, received a destructive fire into her lee-quarter from the Principe de Asturias, who, in conjunction with three ships around her, continued to cannonade the Revenge, until the Dreadnought and Thunderer took off the fire of the Spanish three-decker. From the exposed situation of the Revenge, her loss was very severe, and her masts and rigging were much disabled. Eight of her marines were killed; captain Lely and nine marines wounded.

The Defence commenced engaging the Berwick at 2 h. 30 m. p.m., but in less than half an hour the french ship hauled off, and sustained a sharp contest with the Achille, as we have already related. The San Ildefonso was the next opponent of the Defence, and after engaging for upwards of an hour, the Spanish ship struck her colours. Three marines were killed on board the Defence, and six wounded. The San Ildefonso had been engaged by several ships before the Defence came up and consequently her loss was very great, having nearly a third of her crew killed or wounded.

About 3 p. m. the Thunderer stood athwart the hawse of the Principe de Asturias, and having raked her distantly, brought to on the starboard tack. The Dreadnought had also opened her fire on the three-decker, when the french Neptune came to her assistance, and after engaging the Thunderer a short time, the two ships, with others near them, bore away towards Cadiz. Two marines were killed and one wounded on board the Thunderer. The Principe de Asturias having contended with several opponents, her damages and loss were comparatively severe: she had suffered so considerably, that her main and mizen-masts went in the gale that ensued, and she had 40 men killed, and 107 badly wounded.

The Defiance, after engaging the Spanish admiral and the San Juan, stood towards the Aigle, whose crippled state, from her encounter w T ith the Bellerophon, and then with the Revenge and others, had prevented her from making sail; and at 3 h. p. m. she ran alongside, boarded with little resistance, and got possession of the Aigle's poop and quarter-deck. The french colours were hauled down, and when in the act of hoisting the english in their stead, so destructive a fire of musketry was opened upon the boarders from the forecastle, waist, and tops of the Aigle, that the British were glad to escape back to their ship. The Defiance having sheered off to the distance of pistolshot, a sharp action between the two ships continued for about twenty minutes, when the Aigle being very much shattered, and having: sustained a loss of 270 in killed and wounded, called for quarter. On board the Defiance six marines were killed, and nine wounded.

Having detailed the proceedings of the ships composing the larboard division of the fleet, the operations of the column led by the commander-in-chief will commence the next volume.

1805. Friday 5th April. Boats of Bacchante at Mariel, Havana.

1805. Tuesday 9th April. Gracieux destroyed a Spanish armed schooner.

1805. Monday 15th April. Boats of Papillon captured Conception.

1805. Tuesday 23rd April. Gallant and consorts captured eight gun-vessels.

1805. Thursday 25th April. Archer captured two gun-vessels.

1805. Saturday 4th May. Seahorse and boats at San Pedro.

1805. Sunday 6th May. In the morning, the 32-gun frigate Unicorn, when about nine leagues to the northward of Cape Francois, St. Domingo, discovered the french cutter Tape-abord, of 4 long six-pounders, and 46 men. The prevailing calm rendering a chase by the ship impracticable, captain Hardyman despatched four boats under the command of lieutenant Henry Smith Wilson, assisted by several officers, and among that number lieutenant Walter Powell of the marines. After a pull of several hours the boats reached the cutter, and, under a heavy fire of great guns and musketry, boarded and carried her without the slightest casualty. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1805. Monday 27th May. Lieutenant Thomas Bland of the marines, in command of the barge of the 32-gun 'frigate Seine, captain David Atkins, when off Aguadilla, island of Porto Rico, went in pursuit of the Spanish schooner Concepcion, mounting 2 long six-pounders, with a crew of 10 men besides several passengers, and captured her after some resistance. About three weeks afterwards the same enterprising officer, assisted by midshipman Edward Cook, being on a cruise in the barge, destroyed a Spanish sloop; and after an action of three quarters of an hour captured a second Concepcion, a large felucca, bound from Porto Rico to Cadiz, and armed with 2 long four-pounders and 14 men, five of whom were severely wounded; but no loss was sustained by the British. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1805. Friday 31st May - 2nd June. Diamond Rock bombarded and capitulated.

1805. Saturday 1st June. The 38-gun frigate Loire, captain F. L Maitland, being off the coast of Spain, chased a small privateer into the bay of Camarinas, near Cape Finisterre; and when it became dark, the launch and the two cutters, with 35 officers and men under lieutenant James Lucas Yeo, assisted by lieutenant Samuel Mallock of the marines, and three midshipmen, were sent to attempt her capture. Owing to the intricacy of the passage, the boats did not reach the point of attack until break of day on the 2nd, when they found two privateers moored under a battery of 10 guns. Lieutenant Yeo, with the two cutters, gallantly attacked and carried the Spanish felucca Esperanza, armed with long eighteen-pounders, 4 four-pounders, brass swivels, and 50 men; of these 19 were missing, including several that had been killed by the pike and sabre, the only weapon used by the British, to prevent discovery. The launch, commanded by Mr. Charles Clinch, master's-mate, had in the mean time attacked and captured a lugger of 2 six-pounders, and 32 men. No loss was sustained by the British in this affair.

Captain Maitland having received information that a french privateer of 26 guns was fitting out at Muros, and nearly ready for sea, he resolved to attempt the capture or destruction of that vessel. After arranging the plan of attack, the Loire at 9 a. m. on the 4th stood into the bay, having in tow the boats containing fifty officers and men, commanded by lieutenant Yeo, assisted by lieutenants of marines Samuel Mallock and Joseph Douglas, and master's mate Charles Clinch.

As the Loire hauled round the point, a small battery of 2 long eighteen-pounders opened a fire upon her, and some shots were returned; but finding that the battery, from its commanding situation, would considerably annoy the ship, lieutenant Yeo was directed to push for the shore and spike the guns.

As the Loire opened the bay, a corvette was discovered, pierced with 13 ports of a-side, apparently ready for sea, and a brig with 10, in a state of fitting; but neither had their guns mounted. These vessels were protected by a fort of 12 long eighteen-pounders, which now opened to view within less than a quarter of a mile, and which commenced a well-directed fire on the frigate. The Loire immediately anchored with a spring and opened her broadside upon the fort; but with little effect, owing to its elevated situation, and from being protected by its embrasures. After a few minutes of this unequal warfare, during which the Loire had 9 men wounded, the fort ceased its annoyance and just at that moment the british colours appeared above the walls.

As lieutenant Yeo landed with his party to storm the battery on the point, the Spaniards, amounting to 18 men, abandoned their guns and fled; and scarcely had the seamen time to spike the 2 eighteen-pounders, when at the distance of a quarter of a mile, and close to the town of Muros, the fort, whose destructive fire upon the frigate we have just described, was observed to open upon the Loire. Notwithstanding the formidable appearance of the fort, lieutenant Yeo determined to attempt its immediate reduction, and the detachment readily proceeded to the attack of this important post. Not suspecting an attack by land, and being wholly occupied in firing at the frigate, the garrison had left open the outer gate of the fort: the french sentinel, after discharging his musket, retreated through this gate, and was quickly followed by the advance of the storming party, led by lieutenant Yeo, who attacked and killed the governor. The contest then became severe, but the boldness and vigour of the assault was irresistible, and the remainder of the garrison, composed principally of the crew of the french corvette, and numbering above 90 men, fled to the further end of the fort; from the embrasures of which many of them leaped upon the rocks, a height of 25 feet. Shortly after this, the survivors in the fort having laid down their arms, the british colours were hoisted on the flag-staff, as we have described. Lieutenant Yeo, Mr. Clinch, 3 seamen, and 1 marine wounded, was the extent of the british loss in this daring enterprise. The loss on the part of the garrison was extremely severe: the governor and the second captain of the fort, with 10 others, were killed, and 30 wounded. The 12 eighteen-pounders being spiked and thrown over the parapet, and part of the fort blown up, the British re- embarked without sustaining any further loss; and the two privateers, together with a Spanish merchant brig, were brought away. Lieutenant Yeo was promoted to the rank of commander, and lieutenant Mallock obtained the adjutancy of the Plymouth division.

On the 6th of July lieutenant Pigot, of the Cambrian frigate, having proceeded twelve miles up the river St. Mary's, North America, in a small privateer which had been taken from the enemy, attacked and captured an armed ship and brig, protected by the militia from the shore. The British sustained a loss of 2 men killed, and 13 wounded. Captain Beresford, in reporting this enterprise, observes, " Lieutenant Masterman of the marines, who most ably seconded all Mr. Pigot's views, escaped unhurt, to the wonder of all, for his clothes were shot through and through," (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1805. Sunday 2nd June. Boats of Loire at Camarinas Bay.

1805. Tuesday 4th June. Boats of Loire at Muros Bay.

1805. Monday 10th June. Chiffonne and consorts engaged French gunboats.

1805. Thursday 13th June. Boats of Cambrian captured Maria.

1805. June. Boats of Seine captured Felucca Concepcion.

1805. Wednesday 3rd July. Cambrian captured Matilda.

1805. Sunday 7th - 21st July. Cambian's party in Matilda in St. Mary's River.

1805. Monday 15th July. Plumper and Teazer captured by French gun vessels.

1805. Wednesday 17th - 18th July. Ariadne and consorts engaged off Boulogne.

1805. Friday 19th July. The 36-gun frigate Blanche, captain Z. Mudge, being in latitude 20° 20' north, and longitude 66° 44' west, at 8 a.m. discovered to windward the french 40-gun frigate Topaze, with a corvette of 22 guns, another of 18, and a 16-gun brig, who, under english colours, steered towards the Blanche; but the latter, on finding the private signal not answered, made sail from the strange ships. At 9 a.m. the Topaze had so far gained in the pursuit, as to discharge a broadside into the starboard quarter of the Blanche; who perceiving that she could not escape, shortened sail, and as soon as the Topaze had arrived within pistol-shot, the british frigate returned the fire. The action continued with spirit, all the vessels being under easy sail, and never without hail of each other the large corvette on the starboard-quarter, and two others close astern. At about 10 h. 15 m. a.m. the Blanche attempted to cross the bows of the Topaze; but the latter defeated the manoeuvre by putting her helm hard a-starboard, and passing under the stern of her opponent, raked her with effect. The engagement continued until 11 a.m., when having her sails and rigging cut to pieces, seven of her guns dismounted, and six feet of water in the hold, the Blanche struck her colours. At the commencement of the action she had only 215 men on board: of these 8 were killed; lieutenant Thomas Peebles of the marines (his legs broken by a splinter), and 14 wounded. The captors finding their prize in a sinking state, set her on fire. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1805. Monday 22nd July. Sir Robert Calders action off Finisterre. Known as the Battle of Cape Finisterre off Galicia, Spain, the British fleet under Admiral Robert Calder fought an indecisive naval battle against the combined Franco Spanish fleet which was returning from the West Indies. Failing to prevent the joining of Villeneuve's fleet to the squadron of Ferrol and to strike the shattering blow that would have freed Great Britain from the danger of an invasion. The British received 198 dead or wounded, while the French and Spanish suffered 647 dead and wounded, 1200 were taken prisoners and two Spanish ships were captured. Although it was a strategic victory for the British, Calder was later court martialled and severely reprimanded for his avoiding of the French / Spanish fleet and a further possible engagement on the 23rd and 24th July.

1805. Tuesday 23rd July. Champion and consorts engaged off Fecamp.

1805. Friday 2nd August. Phaeton and Harrier engaged Semillante and consorts.

1805. Tuesday 6th August. Blenheim engaged Marengo and Belie Poule.

1805. Saturday 10th August. The 36-gun frigate Phoenix, captain Thomas Baker, cruising off Cape Ortegal, at 5 a. m. bore up in chase of the french 40-gun frigate Didon, who having shortened sail to await the approach of the Phoenix, at 8 h. 45 m. opened a smart fire, and then wore round and discharged her other broadside into the bows of the british frigate. This manoeuvre was thrice repeated, to the great annoyance of the Phcenix, who failing in her intention of passing astern of her opponent, and engaging her to leeward; and hopeless, from her inferior sailing, of being able to pass a-head of the Didon, ran right at her to windward. At 9 h. 15 m. the action was mutually maintained within pistol-shot but owing to the press of sail under which the Phcenix had approached, she ranged considerably a-head. The Didon filled and stood on, and crossing the stern of the Phoenix, fired some distant shot; then profiting by the damaged state of her opponent's rigging, the french frigate bore up, passed under the stern of the Phcenix, and again raked her. The Didon now hauled up on the larboard tack, intending to discharge her starboard broadside in a similar manner; but the Phcenix throwing all aback, defeated the attempt and brought her starboard quarter against the stern of the Didon, both ships lying nearly in a parallel direction. The instant they came in contact, each prepared to board; but the great superiority of numbers that advanced to the assault on board the Didon, made it necessary for the Phcenix to defend her own decks. Having repulsed the boarders, chiefly by the steady fire of the marines under first-lieutenant Henry Steele, and secondlieutenant John Peter Pleydell, a main-deck gun was brought to bear upon her opponent out of the cabin window of the Phoenix, which at the first discharge swept the Didon' s deck and killed or wounded 24 men. Meanwhile the marines and small-arm men on the quarter-deck were exerting themselves in the most gallant manner; one party directing their attention to the troops on the enemy's gangway, while the other was fully occupied in preventing the men on the Didon's forecastle from discharging their thirty-six pounder carronade.

After the frigates had remained on board of each other for upwards of half an hour, and j ust as the Didon began to forereach, the fire of the second aftermost gun of the Phoenix knocked away the french ship's head-rails and cut the gammoning of her bowsprit. As the Didon forged a-head, her guns were successively brought to bear, and a mutual cannonade recommenced, yard-arm and yard-arm, to the evident advantage of the british ship, until her opponent had passed out of range of her guns, with her main top-mast gone, and her fore-mast tottering. The rigging and sails of the Phoenix were so much cut up, as to render her almost unmanageable her main-royal mast, main top-sail yard and gaff, were shot away; but the english colours were still displayed, suspended from either cross jack yard-arm. Both ships were actively employed in repairing their damaged rigging; and about noon the Phcenix, having sufficiently refitted, closed with her opponent. At about 15 minutes past noon, when about to renew the action, the Didon, from the fall of her foremast being incapable of offering further resistance, hauled down the french colours. Out of the 260 men and boys on board the Phoenix, her second-lieutenant, one master's mate, and 10 seamen were killed; lieutenant Henry Steele of the marines (dangerously in the head), two midshipmen, 13 seamen, and 12 marines were wounded: total, 12 killed, and 28 wounded. The Didon, out of a crew of 330, had 27 killed and 44 badly wounded. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1805. Tuesday 13th August. Swift and boats at Truxillo.

1805. Thursday 15th August. Lord Barham presided at the Board of Admiralty an order in Council ordered a new division to be established a fourth division RMA company was added when a Woolwich Division was formed. They first saw service with the Boulogne Squadron and then at the second battle of Copenhagen that took place from the Friday 16th August to Saturday 5th September 1807. That saw a British bombardment of Copenhagen in order to seize the Dan-Norwegian fleet. During the same time of the fourth division's formation, an additional Artillery company was also added to each of the divisions. The strength of the Corps was now listed as 30,000 men, including four companies of artillery.

1805. Friday 16th August. Raisonnable engaged Topaze.

1805. Wednesday 21st August. Reconnaissance in Camaret Bay.

1805. Thursday 22nd August. Distant Engagement in Camaret Bay.

1805. Thursday 26th September. The 50-gun ship Calcutta, captain Daniel WoodrifF, having under convoy the Indus indiaman, with six other merchant vessels, when in the Bay of Biscay fell in with a french squadron of five sail of the line and three frigates, under rear-admirai Allemand. At 11 a.m. the Calcutta made the private signal, which not being answered, she directed the Indus to make all possible sail a-head with the convoy, and then stood for the 40-gun frigate Armide. After having been distantly engaged with that ship for more than an hour, the Calcutta at 5 p.m. found a more powerful opponent in the 74 gun ship Magnanime, who began firing her chase guns at the british ship, as the latter was still running under all sail to the southward, with a light northerly breeze. Finding that the Magnanime was far a-head of her consorts, captain Woodriff resolved to attack and endeavour to cripple her; and when within pistol-shot commenced an action, which was maintained for three-quarters of an hour without intermission. By this time being completely unrigged and unmanageable, the Calcutta hauled down her colours, having sustained a loss of 6 men killed and 6 wounded, out of a crew of 343 men and boys. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1805. Wednesday 9th October. Princess Charlotte captured Cyane.

1805. Wednesday 16th October. Jason captured Naiade.

1805. Monday 21st October. The Battle of Trafalgar was a naval engagement fought by the Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navys, during the War of the Third Coalition from August to December 1805 as part of the Napoleonic Wars of 1803 to 1805. Sadly it was the battle that led to the death of Vice Admiral Lord Nelson, one of great Britain's navel and country heroes. As Lord Nelson lay wounded on board his Flag ship HMS Victory, having been shot by a French sniper high in the rigging of the French ship Redoubtable. Thomas Hardy ordered Royal Marine Sergeant Secker and some sailors to carry Nelson gently down to the orlop deck situated below the water line. Midshipman John Pollard age 18 on board HMS Victory is credited with being the man who killed the French sniper. It’s estimated that 3,600 Marines took part in the battle (nearly a third of the Corps). Some were involved in Cutting Out Operations during the battle.

1805. Lord Barham presided at the Board of Admiralty; and on the 15th of August an order in Council ordered a new division to be established at Woolwich, with an additional company of artillery. The strength of the corps was now 30,000 men, including four companies of artillery. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1805. October. Major Louis Rotely Recalls Trafalgar. Major Louis Rotley, RM, who made this speech at Swansea was a marine subaltern in the "VICTORY" at Trafalgar. He retired in 1814 and died at Swansea in 1861. He saved four persons from drowning in the course of his life. A scholarship was founded at the Royal Naval School, Eltham, in his memory. Many years after his retirement his fellow citizens of Swansea presented him with a ring on the anniversary of Trafalgar, a gift he acknowledged in the following words.
"Mr Chair and Gentlemen-Friends and fellow townsmen, labouring under extreme illness I rise to return thanks for the honour conferred in drinking my health and for presenting me with this ring. During my career I have received many tokens of regard, among which is a splendid sword with a Damascus blade, a gold snuff-box, several medals, a present from a President of the United States of America, and from several Indian Chiefs, also a valuable consideration from the Patriotic Fund for wounds, etc, but none do I prize more than this elegant ring, which must now become an heirloom.
Having seen but half the world, I have a longing desire to see the other. The first port that will bring me up will be Aboukir Bay at the mouth of the Nile, where the immortal hero whose death this ring is intended to commemorate, as an Admiral gained his first grand victory. At Copenhagen he had to contend against the genius of Napoleon, who had united in one grand league the Fleets of Denmark, Sweden and Russia, with the hope of crushing the naval supremacy of Great Britain. Nelson was sent against them, and the Northern Confederation vanished in smoke.
His last and most decisive victory was at Trafalgar, in which I had the honour to take a part. Trafalgar was my first essay, and never shall I forget my father's advice on my being appointed to the VICTORY; he was an old seaman, and had fought against the celebrated Paul Jones in the first American War. "Louis, " said he, "you will soon be in battle-I foresee a tremendous contest, but whatever you do, be sure to keep your head erect in battle, never bow to a French man's shot, it is folly, for when you hear the balls whistle you are safe, the ball has passed harmless before you can hear it," and amid the carnage and the thousands of cannon balls that whistled past my head on that memorable day, well did I recollect my father's advice. I bore a charmed life then, as I have upon many occasions since.
Previous to breaking the enemy's line their fire was terrific. The VICTORY', was steering for the four-decker, when four ships ahead and four astern together with that huge leviathan brought their broadsides to bear upon the bows of the VICTORY. It was like a hailstorm of bullets passing over our heads on the poop, where we had forty Marines stationed with small arms. It has been stated that Lord Nelson ordered them to lie down at their quarters until wanted, but no such order was given, and no man went down until knocked down; had such orders been given many a life would have been saved, as not a man was hit below the waist. Their steadiness indeed was observed by Nelson, whose eye was everywhere, and who declared he had seen nothing which surpassed it in any of his previous battles. He also made this remark during the battle, "The young Marine is doing well." which I have taken for my motto.
This I learnt from Sir Thomas Hardy, when returning me his thanks on the quarterdeck for my conduct in the battle. The poop became a slaughterhouse, and soon after the commencement the two senior Lieutenants of Marines,' and half the original forty, were placed 'hors de combat.' Captain Adair then ordered me to bring him up a reinforce­ment of Marines from the great guns. I need not inform a seaman the difficulty of separating a man from his gun. In the excitement of action the Marines had thrown off their red jackets and appeared in their check shirts and blue trousers. There was no distinguishing Marine from seaman-all were working like horses. I was now upon the middle deck; we were engaging on both sides, every gun was going off. A man should witness a battle in a three-decker from the middle deck, for it beggars all description. It bewilders the senses of sight and hearing. There was the fire from above, the fire from below, besides the fire from the deck I was upon, the guns recoiling with violence reports louder than thunder, the decks heaving and the sides straining. I fancied myself in the infernal regions, where every man appeared a devil. Lips might move, but orders and hearing were out of the question; everything was done by signs,  With the assistance of two Sergeants and two Corporals (and in some cases by main force) I succeeded in separating about 25 men from the great guns and with this force I ascended to a purer air. The battle now raged at its greatest height, the REDOUTABLE had fallen on board us on our starboard side, and the soldiers from their tops were picking off our officers and men with deadly aim. We were also engaged with the SANTISIMA TRINIDAD and the BUCENTAURE (though at a greater distance) on our larboard. The reinforcement arrived at a most critical moment. Captain Adair's party was reduced to less than ten men, himself wounded in the forehead by splinters, yet still using his musket with effect. One of his last orders to me was "Rotely, fire away as fast as you can," when a ball struck him on the back of the neck, and he was a corpse in a moment-and at the same time our revered Chief fell, having received his mortal wound from a soldier in the mizzen top of the REDOUTABLE. The Marines became exasperated. I was now in command, and the first order I gave was to clear the mizzen top, when every musket was levelled at that top, and in five minutes not a man was left alive in it. Some Frenchman has vaunted that he shot Nelson and survived the battle, and I have heard that a book has been published so stating, but it must be a romance, as I know the man was shot in five minutes after Nelson fell. About this time I observed a British flag on the opposite side of the REDOUTABLE, which proved to belong to the TEMERAIRE, and shortly after another French ship, the FOUGEUX, fell on board the TEMERAIRE on her starboard side, so that four ships of the line were rubbing sides in the heat of the fight, with their heads all lying the same way as if moored in harbour. It consequently became a great nicety in directing the fire of the musketry, lest we should shoot our own men over the decks of the REDOUTABLE. I therefore directed the fire of the Marines to the main and fore tops of that devoted ship, and but few of their men escaped. We gained the battle with Nelson's blood.
Gentlemen, this ring is now rendered sacred by the relic it contains, a part of the hero's hair cut off his head by my own hand. On the morning after his death, I. went below to view the body, and to pro­cure a lock of his hair as a memento, but Captain Hardy had been before me and had cut off the whole with the exception of a small lock at the back of the neck, which I secured. The hair, with tie coat and waistcoat Nelson fell in, was preserved and sent to Lady Hamilton; the breeches and stockings came into my possession, and have preserved them as valuable relics for upwards of forty years.
To preserve the body, a large cask was procured and lashed on its end on the middle deck. The body was brought up by two men from the cockpit. I received it and placed head foremost in the cask. The head of the cask was then replaced and filled with brandy, and a Marine sentinel placed over it by night or day, so that it was impossible for anyone to approach it unseen." (Sic) (Reprinted from the October 1944 edition of 'THE NAVY' magazine.)

1805. Monday 21st October. Battle of Trafalgar. The British Fleet details and losses:

HMS Victory 100 guns, Vice Admiral Lord Nelson (killed), Captain T.M. Hardy, 57 killed.

102 wounded. Captain Charles Wm. Adair (killed), First-Lieutenant James G. Peake (wounded), Second Lieutenant Lewis Buckle Reeves (wounded), Second Lieutenant Lewis Rotely.

HMS Temeraire 98 guns, Captain E. Harvey, 47 killed, and 76 wounded. Captain Simon Busigny (mortally wounded), Second Lieutenant William N. Roe, Second Lieutenant Samuel J. Payne (wounded), Second Lieutenant John Kingston (killed).

HMS Neptune 98 guns, Captain T. F. Freemantle, 10 killed, 34 wounded. First Lieutenant George Kendall, Second Lieutenant William Burton, Second-Lieutenant Lewis Rooke.

HMS Leviathan 74 guns, Captain H. W. Bayntum, 4 killed, 22 wounded. Captain George P.

Wingrove, First Lieutenant Nathaniel Cole, First Lieutenant Thomas J. W. Tane.

HMS Britannia 100 guns, Rear Admiral Earl of Northesk, Captain C. Bullen, 10 killed, 42 wounded. Captain Alexander Watson, First Lieutenant William Jackson, Second Lieutenant L.B.J. Halloran, Second Lieutenant John Cooke.

HMS Conqueror 74 guns, Captain J. Pellew, 3 killed, 9 wounded. Captain James Atcherly, Second Lieutenants Patrick Toole, and Thomas Wearing (wounded).

HMS Africa 64 guns, Captain Henry Digby, 18 killed, 44 wounded. Captain James Fynmore (wounded), First Lieutenant Thomas Brattle.

HMS Agamemnon 64 guns, Captain Sir E. Berry, 2 killed, 7 wounded. Captain H. B.

Downing, Second Lieutenant Herbert Raban, Second Lieutenant Donald Campbell.

HMS Ajax 74 guns, Lieutenant J. Pilfold, 2 killed, 9 wounded. Captain David Boyd, Second Lieutenant J. Cinnamond, Second Lieutenant Samuel B. Ellis.

HMS Orion 74 guns, Captain E. Codrington, 1 killed, 23 wounded. Captain Henry VV. Creswell, Second Lieutenant Stephen Bridgman.

HMS Minotaur 74 guns, Captain C.M. Mansfield, 3 killed, 22 wounded. Captain Paul Hunt, Second Lieutenant Nathaniel B. Grigg, Second Lieutenant Thomas Reeves.

HMS Spartiate 74 guns, Captain Sir F. Lafoi'ey, 3 killed, 20 wounded. First Lieutenant Samuel Hawkins, First Lieutenant John R. Coryton, Second Lieutenant G.D. Hawkins.

The Lee Colum:

HMS Royal Sovereign 100 guns, Vice Admiral C. Collingwood, Captain E. Rotheram, 47 killed, 94 wounded. Captain Joseph Vallack, Second-Lieutenant Robert Green (killed).

Second Lieutenant Armiger Wm. Hubbard, Second Lieutenant James Le Vescomte (wounded).

HMS Belleisle 74 guns, Captain W. Hargood (wounded), 34 killed, 96 wounded. First Lieutenant John Owen (wounded), Second Lieutenant John Weaver, Second Lieutenant Paul Harris Nicolas.

HMS Mars 74 guns, Captain G. Duff (killed), 29 killed, 69 wounded. Captain Thos. Norman, Second Lieutenant Charles Holmes, Second Lieutenant Robert Guthrie.

HMS Tonnant 80 guns, Captain C. Tyler (wounded), 26 killed, 50 wounded. Captain Arthur Ball, Second Lieutenant James Cottle, First Lieutenant William Magin.

HMS Bellerophon 74 guns, Captain J. Cooke (killed), 27 killed, 123 wounded. Captain James Wemyss (wounded), Second Lieutenants John Wilson (2nd), Peter Connolly, and Luke Higgins.

HMS Colossus 74 guns, Captain J. Morris (wounded), 40 killed, 160 wounded. Captain Elias Lawrence, Second Lieutenant William Laurie, Second-Lieutenant John Benson (wounded).

HMS Achille 74 guns, Captain R. King, 13 killed, 59 wounded. Captain Palms Westropp (wounded), Second Lieutenants William Liddon (wounded), and Francis Whalley.

HMS Dreadnought 98 guns, Captain J. Conn, 7 killed, 26 wounded. Captain Thomas Timmins, First Lieutenants John M'Cullum and Thomas Lemon, Second Lieutenant David Manley.

HMS Polyphemus 64 guns, Captain Robert Redmill, 2 killed, 4 wounded. Captain Michael Percival, First Lieutenant John Mackintosh, Second Lieutenant Charles Stewart.

HMS Revenge 74 guns, Captain R. Moorsom (wounded), 28 killed, 51 wounded. Captain Peter Lely (wounded), Second Lieutenant Arthur Copperthwaite, Second Lieutenant Henry Blackler Fairtlough.

HMS Swiftsure 74 guns, Captain H.G. Rutherford, 9 killed, 8 wounded. First Lieutenant William Gibbins, First Lieutenant Robert Gordon, Second Lieutenant Henry Miller.

HMS Defiance 74 guns, Captain P.C. Durham (wounded), 17 killed, 53 wounded. Captain Basil Alves, Second Lieutenant George Bristow.

HMS Thunderer 74 guns, Lieutenant J. Stockham, 4 killed, 12 wounded. Captain Gilbert Elliott, Second Lieutenant William Hockley, Second Lieutenant John Lister.

HMS Defence 74 guns, Captain G. Hope, 7 killed, 29 wounded. Captain Henry Cox, First Lieutenant John Wilson (1st), Second Lieutenant Alfred Burton.

HMS Prince 98 guns, Captain R. Grindall. Captain Francis Williams, Second Lieutenant Edward Pengelley, Second Lieutenant John Shillibeer.

Total, 450 killed, 1244 wounded.

Officers of Marines on board the Frigates: HMS Phoebe First Lieutenant Mortimer, HMS Timson ?, HMS Euryalus Lieutenant John Sandford, HMS Naiad Lieutenants Edward Jones and P.

The Combined Fleet:

S. Perkins; HMS Sirius, Lieutenants Thomas Moore and William Murray.

The direction in which the combined fleet now lay, with a home port scarcely seven leagues on their lee-bow, induced Lord Nelson to telegraph to his second in command, "I intend to pass through the van of the enemy's line, to prevent him from getting into Cadiz," and as the shoals of San Pedro and Trafalgar were under the lee of both fleets, his Lordship, in order to guard against that danger, made the signal "Prepare to anchor after close of day." Shortly afterwards that emphatic message of "England expects every man to do his duty" was communicated to the fleet by telegraph. The inspiring sentiment excited the most lively enthusiasm, and was greeted by hearty cheers on board of every ship.

Having already described the formation of the combined line of battle, it is only necessary to observe, that the Commander-in-Chief in the Bucentaure, with the Santissima Trinidada, his second, ahead, were directly in front of the Victory, the Santa Ana, bearing the flag of Vice-Admiral D'Alava, was in the same direction from the HMS Royal Sovereign whilst the Spanish Commander in Chief, Admiral Gravina, in the Principe d'Asturias, was the rearmost ship of the combined fleet, which formed nearly as follows, Neptuno 80 guns, Scipion 74, Intrepide 74, Rayo 100, Formidable 80, Dugnay Trouin 74, Mont Blanc 74, San Francisco d'Asis 74, San Augustin 74, Heros 74, Santissima Trinidada 130, Bucentaure 74, Neptune 80, San Leandro 64, Redoutable 74, San Justo 80, Indomptable 80, Santa Ana 112, Fougueux 74, Mo-narca 74, Pluton 74, Algesiras 74, Bahama 74, Aigle 74, Swift-sure 74, Argonaute 74, Montanez 74, Argonauta 80, Berwick 74, San Juan Nepornuceno 74, San Ildefonso 74, Achille 74, Principe d'Asturias 112.

1805. Monday 21st October. The Battle of Trafalgar, fact file you might not of heard about:
Vice Admiral Lord Horatio Nelson was not the only Nelson who fought at Trafalgar - there were nine Nelsons at the battle.
One of his namesakes, John Nelson, deserted the Royal Navy in February the following year aged 29 having collected his prize money of £1 17s 8d. He was born in Portsmouth and served on board HMS Tonnant at Trafalgar.
Other facts revealed include:
There were more than 18,000 men who served in the British fleet at Trafalgar including nearly 3,000 marines
Two of the Nelsons that served in the battle were from Denmark.
Only one in six sailors were press-ganged into joining Nelson's navy dispelling the myth that the majority had been forced into service.
The British fleet was a multi-national force with nearly 10 per cent of its fleet, 1,400 men, came from 25 countries outside the British Isles.
A total of 58 Frenchmen were among 750 sailors from across Europe which fought on the British side. Another 430 came from the US and Canada and 156 from the Caribbean Islands.
Of the British contingent, 25 per cent came from Ireland (nearly 4,000), 9 per cent from Scotland (1,300), and 3 per cent from Wales (some 500).
Of the remainder, three-quarters came from the coastal counties, the largest number from Devon, followed by Lancashire, Kent, Hampshire and Cornwall.
The largest single nationality was, of course, the English, with 7,000 men serving and one in 10 of these from London.
For the marines, three quarters were English.
More than half of the sailors were aged in their 20s with 274 boys aged between 10 and 14
Less than one in 10 were over 40. Nelson was 47.
The oldest at Trafalgar was Walter Burke, the purser (supply officer) of Victory who was 69. He survived the battle and lived 10 years more before dying at the aged of 79 in 1815.
The majority of the men involved were between 5ft 2in and 5ft 8in tall with Nelson himself standing 5ft 7in tall.
A total of 624 British sailors and marines were killed at Trafalgar and another 1,402 wounded.
Losses on the French and Spanish side were much greater - estimated to be 7,300. (This information was provided by Pamela and Derek Ayshford who have collected many interesting and unusual facts by trawling through records from the 1805 battle. With this information they have created a CD-Rom called The Ayshford Trafalgar Roll which lists details of all 21,000 men who were at Trafalgar and can be used by people researching their family trees.)

1805. Monday 4th November. Sir Richard John Strachan’s (Colonel of Marines) Victory in the Bay of Biscay. Sir Richard was in command of a detached squadron including three ships of the line and four frigates in the Bay of Biscay. Whilst sailing off Cape Finisterreon on the 2nd November the squadron encountered four French ships of the line that had escaped from the Battle of Trafalgar under the command of Rear Admiral Dumanoir le Pelley. Sir Richard pursued them vigorously and forcrd them into battle on 4th November. After a short engagement, known as the Battle of Cape Ortegal in which he defeated and captured all of them, and in doing so completing the destruction of the French fleet.

1805. Friday 29th November. Boats of Serpent captured San Christoval Pano.

1805. Tuesday 24th December. Egyptienne and Loire captured Libre.

1805. By the end of the year the Corps numbered thirty thousand, the largest it ever saw during the Peninsular War.

1805. A fourth division was formed at Woolwich, and the Marine establishment set at 30,000 with four artillery companies.

1805. The daily ration for the Navy and Marines had been reduced to 1 lb. bread: 1 oz. cheese: 2¼ oz. pork:  oz. sugar: oz. butter: 4¼ oz. beef: 3 oz. flour: 4 oz. suet and one gallon of beer.

1805. Terms of Service. The recruitment of Marines resembled that of the army, as they were essentially landmen they could not be "impressed" like seamen. Posters were printed and stuck up in market places, and recruiting sergeants roamed the area trying to recruit young men with tales of action and adventure. persuasion was not enough and in wartime a substantial bounty was offered which by 1801 had reached £26 per man. Despite this the rapid expansion of the navy caused a crisis as recruitment of marines did not match impressment of sailors. Some soldiers from the army were consequently used at sea and to overcome line of command problems many were offered bounties to transfer to the marines full time. The marines continued to expand throughout the Napoleonic Wars so that by 1805 some 30,000 marines had been voted by parliament. Marines like soldiers were traditionally recruited for life however during the 1790's there was some attempt made to recruit for the "duration" instead.
Marine shore organisation centered on three divisions, with barracks near the dockyards at Chatham, Portsmouth and Plymouth. Training on shore was almost entirely in the skills of an infantryman. The first many marines knew of a ship was on their first posting aboard.
The pay of a marine private was £1 8s 0d per month as per the army. However on board ship this was reduced to 19s 3d per month as victualling and accommodation were provided free.
(Author unknown)

1806. Thursday 2nd January. Wolf and consort captured two privateers.

1806. Sunday 5th - 12th January. Operations and capture of the Cape of Good Hope.

1806. Monday 6th January. Favourite captured by French squadron.

1806. Wednesday 8th January. The Battle of Blaauwberg, and the recapture of Cape Town, was a small but significant military engagement. It established British rule in South Africa, which was to have many ramifications for the region during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Captain McKenzie and 400 Marines played a major role during the battle.

1806. Tuesday 28th January. Growler captured Voltigeur.

1806. Tuesday 28th January. Attack captured Sorcier.

1806. January. Bruizer captured Impromptu.

1806. January. Boats of Franchise cut out Raposa.

1806. Thursday 6th February. Sir Robert Duckworth’s action off St. Domingo, against seven ships of the French line. He captured three and burned two, a major part of the French fleet. Only two Frigates, and a Corvet managed to escape.

1806. Thursday 27th February. Hydra captured Furet.

1806. Saturday 8th March. Boats of Egyptienne cut out Alcide.

1806. Thursday 13th March. London and Amazon captured Marengo and Belle Poule.

1806. Monday 17th March. Boats of Pique captured Santa Clara.

1806. Friday 21st March. Boats of Colpoys at Avillas.

1806. Monday 24th March. Reindeer engaged Voltigeur and Phaeton.

1806. Wednesday 26th March. Pique captured Voltigeur and Phaeton.

1806. Friday 28th March. Niobe captured Nearque.

1806. Friday 4th April. Renommee captured Vigilante and consort.

1806. Saturday 5th April. Pallas drove ashore three French corvettes.

1806. Saturday 5th April. Boats of Pallas captured Tapageuse.

1806. Thursday 17th April. Sirius at Civita Vecchia.

1806. Saturday 19th April. Colpoys and Attack in the Douillan.

1806. Monday 21st April. Tremendous engaged Canonniere.

1806. Friday 25th April. Pallas reconnoitred Isle of Aix.

1806. April. Pallas off La Vendee.

1806. April. Pompee and squadron succoured Gaeta.

1806. April. Frisk, Contest and Pallas at Pointe d'Aiguillon.

1806. Sunday 4th May. Boats of Renommee and Nautilus cut out Giganta.

1806. Sunday 11th May. Capture of Capri.

1806. Monday 12th May. Pallas and consorts off Isle of Aix.

1806. Monday 12th May. Boats of Juno at Gaeta.

1806. Monday 12th May. The Capture of the highly fortified Island of Capri, by Sir Sidney Smith's Marines and bluejackets, who wrestled the Island back from the French, after Bonaparte had taken it earlier in January.

1806. Wednesday 14th May. Pallas engaged Minerve and three brigs.

1806. Thursday 15th May. Juno supported a sortie from Gaeta.

1806. Friday 23rd May. HMS Pompee Captures Convoy at Sealia.

1806. June - October. Sir H. Popham's operations in the River Plate.

1806. Thursday 22nd June. Boats of Minerve in Finistere Bay.

1806. Monday 26th June. Boats of Port Mahon captured San Josef.

1806. Friday 27th June. The taking of Buenos Ayres. Major Alezr. McKenzie and 340 Marines were present.

1806. Friday 4th July. Boats of HMS Melpomone take a French Setee.

1806. Wednesday 9th July. Powerful captured Bellone.

1806. Friday 11th July. Boats of Minerve captured Buena Dicta.

1806. Wednesday 16th July. Boats of squadron cut out Cesar.

1806. Saturday 19th July. Blanche captured Guerriere.

1806. Saturday 26th July. Greyhound and Harrier took Pallas, Vittoria, and Balavia. Loss of the Sidney.

1806. Monday 28th July. Mars captured Rhin.

1806. Wednesday 30th July. Amphion at capture of Cotrone.

1806. July. The British invasions of the Río de la Plata in South America was a series of unsuccessful British attempts to seize control of the Spanish colonies located around the La Plata Basin. The area was vast and included parts of Argentina, Uruguay and especially the town of Buenos Aires. A detachment from the British army occupied Buenos Aires for 46 days during 1806 before being expelled.

1806. Thursday 14th August. Phosphorus beat off a French lugger.

1806. Monday 18th August. Boats of Galatea at Porto Cabello.

1806. Thursday 21st August. Boats of Galatea destroyed a privateer.

1806. Saturday 23rd August. Boats of Alexandria in the Plate.

1806. Saturday 23rd August. Anson and Arethusa captured Pomona and gunboats.

1806. Saturday 30th August. Boats of Bacchante cut out three vessels at Sta-Martha.

1806. Saturday 30th August. Pike captured a guarda-costa.

1806. Wednesday 3rd September. Squadron at Batabano.

1806. Sunday 14th September. Melampus destroyed Impetueux.

1806. Monday 15th September. Anson engaged Foudroyant.

1806. Thursday 25th September. Monarch, Centaur and Mars took four French men of war.

1806. Saturday 27th September. Dispatch captured Presidente.

1806. Tuesday 2nd October. Boats of Minerva at Oro Island.

1806. Thursday 9th October. Boats of Galatea cut out three schooners at Barcelona.

1806. Thursday 12th October. Sheldrake and consorts destroyed Salamandre.

1806. Saturday 18th October. Caroline captured Maria-Riggersbergen and three more.

1806. Tuesday 21st - 22nd October. Boats of Renommee at Colon, Majorca.

1806. Friday October. 24 to 26. Pitt captured Superbe.

1806. Saturday 1st November. Boats of Pique in Carbaret Bay.

1806. Sunday 2nd November. Pique took one privateer and destroyed another.

1806. Tuesday 11th November. Sceptre and Cornwallis engaged Semillante and batteries.

1806. Wednesday 12th November. Boats of Galatea captured Reunion.

1806. Thursday 20th November. Boats of Success captured Vengeur.

1806. Thursday 20th November. Boats of Orpheus captured Dolores.

1806. Friday 21st November. Dedaigneuse engaged Semillante.

1806. Thursday 27th November. Boats of squadron in Batavia Roads.

1806. Saturday 13th December. Halcyon captured Neptune.

1806. Tuesday 16th December. Kingfisher captured Elisabeth.

1806. Saw additional companies raised to accommodate supernumerary Marines.

1806. Lord Howick succeeded Lord Barham as first Lord of the Admiralty. Nothing particular occurred during the short time he was at the Board, but under his successor, the Earl of Mulgrave, the Corps obtained many advantages; for his Lordship being a military man, was better capable of comprehending the real and combined interests of the Corps with that of the public service. He appointed an additional Lieutenant Colonel and a Major to the Woolwich division, placing it on the same footing as the other three, and at the same time ten companies were added to the establishment of the Corps, to appropriate the men already raised, but not attached. Second Captains were appointed to the companies as the Pay Captains, which gave promotion to sixteen First and sixteen Second Lieutenants. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1807. Thursday 1st January. HMS Arethusa land and storm Fort Amsterdam and capture Curacoa . At 1am the Frigates hove to when near the high land of St. Barbery's, on the east end of Curacoa, and having hoisted out the boats, and made the necessary arrangements for an immediate attack by storm, bore away for the mouth of the harbour at 6am, with HMS Arethusa leading, followed in close order by the HMS Latona, HMS Anson, and HMS Fisgard. The entrance is only 60 fathoms wide, and is defended by regular fortifications, the principal of which, Fort Amsterdam, standing on the right-hand side, mounts 60 pieces of cannon in two tiers. Athwart the harbour, (which nowhere exceeds a quarter of a mile in width) were the Dutch 36 gun frigate Halstaa, and 20 gun ship Surinam, besides two large armed schooners. On Middleburg height there was a chain of forts; and Fort Republique, deemed almost impregnable, situated upon a high hill at the bottom of the harbour, within half gunshot distance, enfiladed the whole. At daylight HMS Arethusa, with a flag of truce at the fore, entered the port; but the Dutch forts and shipping, taking no notice of the flag, opened a smart although ineffective fire. The wind suddenly shifting to the north, checked the further progress of HMS Arethusa; but in a few minutes it veered back to northeast, thereby enabling all the frigates, except HMS Fisgard, a ground on the west side, to lay up along the harbour, and the three remaining ships anchored in positions for cannonading the defences of the enemy.

HMS Arethusa was now lying with her jib boom over the wall of the town, when Captain Brisbane sent the following Bummons to the Governor, "The British squadron are here to protect, and not to conquer you, but to preserve to you your lives, liberty, and property. If a shot be fired at any one of my squadron after this summons, I shall immediately storm your batteries, you have five minutes to accede to this determination. "No notice being taken of this summons, the flag of truce was hauled down, and at 6-15am the British squadron commenced the action. After the discharge of the third broadside, Captain Brisbane, at the head of the boarders, carried the Dutch Frigate, and HMS Latona immediately warped alongside and took possession. In the meantime Captain Lydiard, with a division of men from the HMS Anson, had boarded and secured the Corvette.

Captains Brisbane and Lydiard then pulled straight for the shore, and landing together, proceeded at 7-30am. too storm Fort Amsterdam. The vigour of the assault was irresistible, whilst some were employed in forcing open the sea-gate, others escaladed the walls, and although the fort was garrisoned by 276 regular troops, it was carried in about ten minutes, and shortly afterwards the citadel and some minor forts, as well as the town, were in the possession of the British. On the return of Captains Brisbane and Lydiard to their respective ships, a fire was opened upon Fort Republique, and 300 seamen and Marines were landed to attack it in the rear, but without waiting for such encounter the fort surrendered, and by noon the whole island of Curacoa had capitulated to the British arms.

This unparalleled achievement was accomplished with no greater loss to the British than 3 seamen killed, and 14 wounded. The loss on the part of the Dutch was much more severe, the Halstaar had her Captain and 2 men killed, and 3 wounded, the Surinam 1 killed, her Commander (dangerously) and 3 wounded, and the schooner Flying Fish, one killed and one wounded. Total, 6 killed, and 8 wounded, whilst the killed and wounded on shore amounted to about 200 men.

Captain Brisbane, the planner and leader of this gallant enterprise, received the honour of Knighthood, medals were conferred on the four Captains, the Senior Lieutenants of the HMS Arethusa and HMS Anson were made Commanders, and Lieutenant George Peebles was promoted to the Brevet rank of Captain.

The officers of Marines serving on board the squadron were as follows:

HMS Arethusa, First Lieutenant Octavius Scott, Second Lieutenant John Fennell.

HMS Latona, First Lieutenant John Hay, Second Lieutenant ?? Henderson.

HMS Anson First Lieutenant George Peebles.

HMS Fisgard First Lieutenant A. Watts, Second Lieutenant Hugh Peregrine.

On the Wednesday 21st January, at day break, the 32-gun frigate HMS Galatea, Captain George Sayer, when cruising off the Caraccas, on the Spanish main, discovered and chased the French I6 gun brig Lynx but it falling calm, the boats of the Frigate under Lieutenant William Coombe, containing 6 Officers, 50 Seamen, and 20 Marines, were sent to attack her. It was not until 8-30pm. that the boats, formed in two lines, arrived within hail of the brig; instantly cheering they dashed alongside, but met with such determined opposition, that they were compelled to sheer off. A second attempt was equally unsuccessful, but the third attack enabled the gallant assailants, after a severe struggle, to obtain possession of their hard earned prize. Lieutenant Henry Walker, 5 Seamen, and 3 Marines were killed, Lieutenant Coombe, 2 Midshipmen, 15 Seamen, and 4 Marines wounded. Total of 9 killed and 22 wounded.

1807. Sunday 3rd February. The battle of Montevideo, between the British and Spanish Empires during the Napoleonic Wars, in which the British forces captured the city. It also formed part of the British invasions of the River Plate.

1807. Tuesday 6th January. Boats of Imperieuse at Arcasson.

1807. Thursday 8th January. Pickle captured Favorite.

1807. January - July. Squadron at Buenos Ayres and Montevideo.

1807. Wednesday 21st January. Boats of Galatea captured Lynx.

1807. Tuesday 27th January. Lark captured Postilion and Carmen.

1807. Tuesday 27th January. Jason re-took Favourite (late British).

1807. January. Boats of Cerberus captured a privateer.

1807. January. Jackdaw taken by a Spanish rowboat.

1807. Sunday 1st February. Lark and boats at Zispata Bay.

1807. Saturday 14th February. Bacchante and Mediator at Samana, St Domingo.

1807. February - March. Duckworth in the Dardanelles.

1807. February. The Dardanelles Operation was the Royal Navy's unsuccessful attempt to impose British demands on the Ottoman Empire as part of the Anglo Turkish War (1807-1809). During 1806 the French had tried to bring about Turkey's re-entry into the war.

During the fighting with the Turkish fleet at Fort Pesquies, that mounted 31 guns, and fired heavily on the British squadron, and continued its fire well after the Turkish ships had been run ashore or captured. The beach too, was crowded with armed men, and the Pompee having fired a few shells to disperse them, her Marines loaded and brought off a Green Standard. Lieutenant Nichols of the Marines brought off the flag of the Captain Pasha from the 40 gun frigate on which it flew and which he set on fire in accordance with his orders. He then entered Fort Pesquies, spiked the guns and set the garrison a blaze.

1807. February. The Bombardment of Constantinople.

1807. February While in the Dardanelles, Fighting Nicolls (Lietenant Edward Nicolls) Commanding a contingent of Marines landed at Fort Pesquies. It was during this period, too, that he was honourably mentioned in dispatches for his part in the Dardanelles Operation.

1807. Sunday 1st March. Hirondelle and boats of Glatton cut out a Turkish corvette.

1807. Sunday 15th March. Boats of Camus cut out six merchantmen.

1807. Tuesday 17th March. Disembarkation at Alexandria.

1807. Wednesday 18th March. Storming of enemy's works near Alexandria.

1807. Saturday 21st March. Alexandria capitulated.

1807. Saturday 21st March. Leopard attacked Chesapeake, and made her strike.

1807. Wednesday 25th March. The Slave Trade Act or the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed with the title of ‘An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade’, that received the Royal Assent. The original act is kept in the Parliamentary Archives.

The act abolished the slave trade in the British Empire, in particular the Atlantic slave trade, and also encouraged British action to press other European states to abolish their slave trades, but it did not abolish slavery itself. Many of the Bill's supporters thought the Act would lead to the death of slavery, but it was not until 26 years later that slavery itself was actually abolished. Slavery on English soil was unsupported in English law and that position was confirmed in Somersett's Case in 1772, but it remained legal in most of the British Empire until the Slavery Abolition Act 1833.

1807. Friday 17th April. Sally engaged off Danzig.

1807. Wednesday 29th April. Boats of Richmond captured Gaillard.

1807. April. Pike captured by Marat.

1807. Friday 8th May. Boats of Comus cut out a felucca.

1807. Thursday 14th May. Boats of Spartan repulsed by a polacca off Nice.

1807. Saturday 16th May. Dauntless surrendered to the French at Danzig.

1807. May Spartan engaged Annibal, two frigates, and a corvette.

1807. Friday 5th June. Boats of Pomone captured gun-brig and 14 sail.

1807. Saturday 6th June. A prize schooner captured Mercedes.

1807. Saturday 25th July. Fleet assembled at Yarmouth.

1807. Saturday 6th August. Hydra at Begur.

1807. Friday 7th August. HMS Hydra attacks Begur, Catalonia.

1807. August - September. The second Battle Copenhagen. After a heavy bombardment of the city a large contingent of Marines were landed on the 5th September.

1807. Saturday 15th August. Comus captured Fredrickscoarn.

1807. August - September. Gambier at Copenhagen.

1807. Tuesday 18th - 21st August. Light squadron engaged in Copenhagen Roads.

1807. Tuesday 18th August. Boats of Confiance cut out Reitrada.

1807. Monday 24th August. Weazel captured four vessels and destroyed three.

1807. Tuesday 25th August. Boats of Clyde cut out a sloop at Ypont.

1807. Monday 31st August. Psyche and boats at Samarang.

1807. Wednesday 2nd September. RM Corporals were awarded and allowed to wear chevrons in lieu of the 'Knots' worn on their shoulders.

1807. Saturday 5th September. Majestic and Quebec took Heligoland.

1807. Thursday 17th September. Barbara captured by General Ernouf.

1807. Wednesday 7th October. Boats of Porcupine captured Safo.

1807. Sunday 25th October. Boats of Herald cut out Cesar.

1807. Wednesday 28th October. Louisa defeated a privateer.

1807. Wednesday 4th November. Carrier captured Aclif.

1807. Friday 6th November. Renommee and Grasshopper off Cartagena.

1807. Tuesday 24th November. Ann captured a privateer and two gunboats.

1807. Friday 27th - 29th November. Boats of Porcupine at Ragusa.

1807. Thursday 3rd December. Curieux engaged Revanche.

1807. Sunday 6th December. Squadron captured Dutch vessels at Java.

1807. Friday 11th December. Grasshopper captured San Josef.

1807. Monday 21st December. St. Thomas taken from the Danes.

1807. Friday 25th December. St. Croix taken from the Danes.

1807. Saturday 26th December. Madeira capitulated.

1807. A second British invasion force stormed and occupied Montevideo, remaining there for several months, and a third force made a second attempt to take Buenos Aires. After several days of street-fighting against the local militia and the Spanish colonial army. The British suffered heavy losses amounting to half its force being killed or wounded, and they were eventually forced to withdraw.

1807 - 1815. The establishment remained at 31,400; but there were frequently more than 3000 supernumeraries. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1808. The Royal Navy which at that time controlled the world's seas, established the West Africa Squadron to patrol the coast of West Africa, and between 1808 and 1860 they seized approximately 1,600 slave ships and freed 150,000 Africans who were aboard. The Royal Navy declared that ships transporting slaves were the same as pirates. Action was also taken against African leaders who refused to agree to British treaties to outlaw the trade, for example against ‘the usurping King of Lagos’, who was deposed in 1851. Anti-slavery treaties were signed with over 50 African rulers.

1808. The Corps of Colonial Marines were two units made up of former American slaves for British service. They were created at different times and both disbanded after the wars. They were recruited to address the shortage of military manpower in the Caribbean. The locally recruited men were less susceptible to tropical illnesses than were troops sent from Britain and knew the terrain. The Corps followed the practice of the British Army's West India Regiments in recruiting escaped slaves as soldiers, but were loathed to view themselves as mere slave soldiers. They were free men and they represented a psychological threat to the slave owning American society by being armed. They were highly thought of and as competent as their European comrades. They also received free land grants in Canada in return for their commendable service, achieving freedom in which the Land of Liberty had denied them.

1808. Some of the black soldiers of the 2nd West India Regiment mutinied and killed two officers. They were subsequently overcome by loyal soldiers of the Regiment, and seven leaders were executed. The principle justification for using slaves and free blacks for the proposed Regiments was the extremely high mortality rate of European soldiers in the West Indies. A concomitant problem was that assignment to the West Indies was extremely unpopular with the British Army, leading many to a refusals to serve in that area.

1808. Saturday 30th January. Delight captured by the French at Reggio.

1808. Sunday 7th February. Decouverte drove ashore a privateer.

1808. Monday 8th February. Boats of Meleager captured Renard.

1808. Tuesday 9th February. Decouverte captured Dorade.

1808. Saturday 13th February. Boats of Confiance cut out a French gunboat.

1808. Wednesday 2nd March. Sappho captured Admiral Yawl.

1808. Wednesday 2nd March. Cerberus and consorts capture Marie Galante.

1808. Thursday 3rd March. The occupation of Marie Galante. 400 Royal Marines left a garrison under Captain Chass. Tyldesley. One report read that they suffered heavily morality from disease. The barracks being built in a swamp.

1808. Tuesday 8th March. San Fiorenzo captured Piemontaise.

1808. Sunday 13th March. The destruction of Batteries and small craft at Vivero. A detachment of Royal Marines of HMS Emerald, under Lieutenant G. Meech and J. Husband. The latter receiving a Sword of Honour from the Patriotic Fund.

1808. Monday 14th March. Childers engaged Lougon.

1808. Tuesday 15th - 20th March. Terpsichore engaged Semillante.

1808. Tuesday 22nd March. Aigle engaged off Groix.

1808. Tuesday 22nd March.. Stately and Nassau destroyed Prince Christian Frederick.

1808. Wednesday 30th March. Cerberus and consorts at Desirade.

1808. Monday 4th April. Alceste and consorts at Rota.

1808. Friday 22nd April. Goree and Superieure in action off the Saintes.

1808. Saturday 23rd April. Unsuccessful attempt to cut out Garota.

1808. Sunday 24th April. Grasshopper and Rapid at Faro.

1808. Monday 25th April. Forward and consorts captured ten sail at Flodstrand.

1808. Friday 29th April. Boats of Falcon destroyed eight sail at Endelan.

1808. Monday 2nd May. Unite captured Ronco in the Gulf of Venice.

1808. Saturday 7th May. Boats of Falcon captured two sail at Lundholm.

1808. Saturday 7th May. Redwing destroyed seven Spanish vessels.

1808. Tuesday 10th - 14th May. Wizard engaged Requin.

1808. Wednesday 11th May. Bacchante captured Griffon.

1808. Thursday 12th May. Amphion and boats engaged Baleine at Rosas.

1808. Thursday 12th May. Tartar and boats at Bergen.

1808. Thursday 19th May. Virginie captured Guelderland.

1808. Friday 20th May. Boats of Fawn cut out vessels at Porto Rico.

1808. Monday 23rd May. HMS Melpomone and Danish Gunboats.

1808. Sunday 24th July and later dates. Raids on the French and Spanish coast. Lieutenant J. Ryves Hore performed an extraordinary series of raids on the French and Spanish coasts during the summer. Landing from HMS Imperieuse a 38 gun frigate commanded by Lord Cochrane, he took part in the destruction of many coastal batteries and roads near Barcelona in order to hamper the movements of the French Army in Catalonia. On the 31st July he and his detachment seized and occupied the castle of Mongal which completely commandeered a pass on the road from Barcelona to Gerona, then besieged by the French. To preserve the Frenchmen he found in the castle from the fury of the Spaniards, Hore had to escort his prisoners to the point of embarkation, after having blown up the castle in such a way as to completely block the road. During the latter part of August he was constantly engaged in raiding the enemy’s posts with varying opposition, but with unvaried success, says an official letter dated the Wednesday 28th September, “The newly constructed semaphoric telegraphs which are of the utmost consequence to the safety of the numerous convoys that pass along the coast of France at Bourdique, La Pinede, St. Frontignan, Canet, and Fray have been blown up and completely demolished, together with their telegraph houses, fourteen barracks of gene-d’armes, one battery and the strong tower on the lake of Frontignan. These operations had the effect of drawing off about 2,000 French troops from the important fortress of Figueras to defend their coastal communications.

1808. Tuesday 24th May. Swan at Bornhohn.

1808. Tuesday 31st May. Redwing took two sail at Tarifa.

1808. Wednesday 1st June. Unite captured Nettuno and Teulie.

1808. Saturday 4th June. Tickler captured by Danish gunboats.

1808. Thursday 9th June. Turbulent captured by Danish gun-vessels.

1808. Saturday 11th June. Boats of Euryalus and Cruiser off the Naskon.

1808. Sunday 19th June. Seagull captured by Danish gunboats.

1808. Thursday 23rd June. Boats of Porcupine at Civita Vecchia.

1808. Sunday 26th June. Captain Edward Nicolls RM on board the Standard, led the boat attack which captured the Italian gunboats Volpe and Leger off Corfu.

1808. Sunday 3rd July. British repulsed at St. Martin and survivors captured.

1808. Wednesday 6th July. Seahorse captured Badere Zaffer.

1808. Sunday 10th July. Boats of Porcupine at Port d'Anzo.

1808. Thursday 21st July. Boats of Porcupine at Monte Circello.

1808. Thursday 28th July. Volage captured Requin.

1808. Sunday 31st July. Imperieuse at Mongal.

1808. July. A strong detachment of Royal Marines under Captain G. Lewis was landed at Figueras to secure the landing area for the British Army under Sir Arthur G. Lewis. The Portuguese flag was hoisted which hundreds flocked to enrol beneath, and the post was held till the arrival of General Anstruther’s Brigade on the 19th August.

1808. Monday 1st August. The Attack on a convoy at Noli.

1808. Monday 1st August. Wizard and boats captured guns and Vigilant at Noli.

1808. Tuesday 2nd August. Tigress captured by Danish gunboats.

1808. Monday 8th August. Boats of Porcupine cut out Conception.

1808. Thursday 11th August. Comet captured Sylphe.

1808. Thursday 11th August. Boats of squadron captured Fama and Salorman.

1808. Tuesday 16th August. Sybille captured Espiegle.

1808. Thursday 18th August. Rook captured by two French privateers.

1808. Friday 26th August. Implacable and Centaur captured Sevolod.

1808. August. Keats relieved garrisons in the Baltic.

1808. Tuesday 6th September. Recruit engaged Diligente.

1808. Monday 12th September. Laurel captured by Canonniere.

1808. Thursday 29th September. Maria captured by Departement des Landes.

1808. September. Imperieuse off Languedoc.

1808. Monday 3rd October. Carnation captured by Palinure.

1808. Monday 3rd October. Modeste captured Jena.

1808. Thursday 20th October. Africa repulsed 25 Danish gunboats.

1808. Monday 31st October. Circe captured Palinure.

1808. Tuesday 1st November. Cruiser captured a Danish brig.

1808. Monday 7th - 8th November. Excellent and Meteor at Rosas.

1808. Thursday 10th November. HMS Amethyst captures Thetis

1808. Monday 14th November. Boats of Polyphemus captured Colibri.

1808. Tuesday 15th November – 5th December. The defence of Fort Trinidad-Rosa.

1808. Tuesday 15th - 5th December. Excellent and consorts at Rosas.

1808. Monday 28th November. Boats of Heureux at Mabaut.

1808. Monday 12th - 13th December. Circe and consorts captured Cygne and a schooner.

1809. Sunday 1st January. Onyx captured Dutch corvette Manly.

1809. Monday 2nd January. Amiable captured Iris.

1809. Thursday 5th January. Loire captured Hebe.

1809. Saturday 7th January – 14th January. The taking of Cayenne. Lieutenant J. Read was mortally wounded in leading the assault on Port Dimant.

1809. Tuesday 17th January – 18th January. Corunna. A detachment of Royal Marines of HMS Resolution landed to destroy the batteries commanding the harbour. Officers and men received the thanks of both houses of Parliament for their service, but did not get the Army Medal and Clasp.

1809. Sunday 22nd January. Cleopatra, Jason, and Hazard captured Topaze.

1809. Monday 30th January - 24th February. Sir A. Cochrane captured Martinique.

1809. Wednesday 8th February. Horatio and consorts captured Junon.

1809. Wednesday 8th February. Amphion and Redwing dispersed French ships off Melida.

1809. Wednesday 15th February. Belle Poule captured Var.

1809. Friday 24th February. Ceasar and consorts destroyed Italienne, Calypso and Cybe.

1809. Tuesday 28th February. Fight between HMS Proserpine and two French Frigates off Toulon. (Heroism of a private of Marines).

1809. February. In February 1809, a second-commandant was added to each division, and the pay of the commandant in London increased to £3 per diem, colonels in command of divisions, £2. 10s second-commandants, £1. 10s., and the same emolument was extended to those on the retired list; whilst the brevet officers on that establishment obtained 2s. per diem. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1809. Sunday 12th March. Topaze engaged Danae and Flora.

1809. Sunday 12th March. Batteries carried and guns destroyed at Lequito.

1809. Monday 20tgh March. Batteries destroyed at Baigno and Paissance.

1809. Saturday 1st April. Boats of Mercury boarded Leda at Rovigno.

1809. Saturday 1st April. Amelia destroyed batteries in Aix Roads.

1809. Wednesday 5th April. Amethyst captured Niemen.

1809. Wednesday 12th April. Lord Cochrane destroyed French ship at Basque Roads.

1809. Thursday 13th April. The attack on the French Flotilla in the Basque Roads.

1809. Friday 14th - 17th April. Pompee and consorts took Hautpoult.

1809. Saturday 15th April. Intrepid engaged Furieuse and Felicite.

1809. Sunday 23rd April. Spartan and consorts bombarded Pesaro.

1809. Wednesday 26th April. Thrasher engaged Flotilla near Boulogne.

1809. Tuesday 2nd May. Spartan and Mercury at Cesenatico.

1809. Thursday 4th May. Parthian captured Nouvelle Gironde.

1809. Thursday 11th May. Melpomene destroyed a Danish cutter.

1809. Monday 15th May. Boats of Tartar captured a Danish privateer.

1809. Monday 15th May. Mercury bombarded Rotti.

1809. Wednesday 17th May. Goldfinch engaged Mouche.

1809. Thursday 18th May. The Capture of the Island of Anholt. Captain Edward Nicolls RM assisted Marines and seamen under the command of Captain William Selby of Owen Glendower in the capture of the island of Anholt. In the skirmish, a Danish garrison of 170 men put up a sharp but ineffectual resistance that killed one British Marine and wounded two before surrendering. Following the capture of Anholt, Captain Edward Nicolls was briefly assigned to duty as the British military governor of the island.

1809. Sunday 21st May. Black Joke engaged Mouche.

1809. Tuesday 23rd - 30th May. Melpomene engaged a Danish flotilla.

1809. Wednesday 31st May. Topaze brought out nine vessels from St. Maura.

1809. Wednesday 7th June. The forts at Vigo were occupied by 60 stragglers from Sir John Moores Army, aided by some seamen and Royal Marines. (Napier) The Marines of HMS Lively garrisoned the castle of Vigo.

1809. Saturday 10th June. Amelia and Statira captured Mouche.

1809. Wednesday 14th June. Boats of Scout at Cape Croisette.

1809. Wednesday 14th - 18th June. Latona took Felicite.

1809. Monday 19th June. Bellerophon's boats carried Russian batteries at Hango.

1809. Sunday 25th June. Islands of Procida and Ischia surrendered to the British.

1809. Monday 25th - 26th June. Cyane and Espoir engaged with Ceres.

1809. Thursday 6th July. St. Domingo surrendered to the British.

1809. Thursday 6th July. Bonne Citoyenne captured Furicuse.

1809. Friday 7th July. Capture of seven Russian gunboats off Hango Head.

1809. Saturday 8th July - 13th July. The Capture of Fort Louis in Senegal. Lieutenant Lewis B. Reeves, Royal Marines, and 50 Privates took part in a small expedition despatched from the garrison of Goree under Major Maxwell. The little force only 210 strong was badly pressed after landing, when the enemy’s attack was broken by a bayonet charge delivered by the Marines, and on the 31st Fort Louis capitulated with its garrison of 400 men. The Marines were left to occupy the fort for a further 7 months, during which time nearly half of them succumbed to the climate.

1809. Thursday 27th July. The capture of a Fort at Bremerle, Cuxhaven. A detachment of Royal Marines under Lieutenant John Benson was landed at Ritzbuttle to cover the destruction of the fort and its guns, and to intercept the advances of any French troops. The Marines advanced as far as Bremerdike and Gerendoz, a distance of 28 miles.

1809. Sunday 13th August. The Bombardment of Flushing.

1809. Friday 14th July. Fort of Carri stormed and carried by boats of Scout.

1809. Tuesday 25th July. Princess Caroline and consorts captured four Russian vessels.

1809. Tuesday 25th July. Boats of Fawn captured Guadaloupe.

1809. Thursday 27th July. Forts at Cuxhaven destroyed.

1809. Friday 28th July - 4th September. Expedition to the Scheldt.

1809. Saturday 29th July. Acorn and consorts engaged off Duin.

1809. Saturday 12th August. Monkey and Lynx captured three Danish luggers.

1809. Monday 14th August. Boats of Otter captured two vessels.

1809. Monday 28th August. Battery at Cortelazzo carried by boats of Amphion.

1809. Wednesday 30th August. The occupation of Fort Walcheren. Captain F. Liardet and 700 Marines.

1809. Thursday 7th September. Boats of Mercury captured Pugliese.

1809. Monday 11th September. Diana captured Zephyr.

1809. Thursday 21st September. The reduction of the Isle of Boubon. Lieutenant Cottal. 6 Officers and 130 Royal Marines landed near Pointdu Galet, together with 100 seamen, 200 of the 56th Regiment and 108 Bombay sappers. The object of this force was to destroy the batteries protecting the harbour of St. Paul and to take out the shipping. Five batteries were surprised and destroyed and a quantity of shipping, including two men of war captured or destroyed.

1809. Tuesday 17th October. Capture of French privateer at Sainte Marie.

1809. October. Zante, Cephalonia, Cerigo, and Ithaca surrendered.

1809. Wednesday 1st November. Cumberland and consorts captured 11 armed vessels.

1809. Thursday 2nd November. Victor captured by French frigate Bellone.

1809. Monday 13th November. The storming of Ras-El-Khyma. The detachments of Marines of HMS La Chiffone and HMS Caroline were landed under Colonel Smith in command of troops to attack the pirate strong hold of Ras-El-Khyma in the Persian Gulf. After a short bombardment a landing was effected on the south side of the town which was burnt and the enemy driven out. Lieutenant T. Drury Commanded the Marines. Three Marines obtained booty amounting to 4,500 gold Mohurs (£7,650).

1809. Monday 13th November. Chiffonne and Caroline destroyed Ras al Khyma.

1809. Friday 17th November. Linga destroyed by Chiffonne and Caroline.

1809. Sunday 27th November. Luft destroyed by Chiffonne and Caroline.

1809. Saturday 9th December. Redpole captured Grand Rodeur.

1809. Wednesday 13th December. Boats of Thetis and consorts took Nisus at Guadaloupe.

1809. Wednesday 13th December. Junon captured and destroyed by the French.

1809. Thursday 14th December. Melampus captured Bearnaise.

1809. Sunday 17th - 18th December. Sceptre and consorts took Anse la Barque, Guadaloupe.

1809. Sunday 17th December. Rosamond captured Papillon.

1809. December - 3rd January. 1810. Chiffonne and Caroline carried Shenaz by storm.

1809. To the peace in 1814, no general promotion took place in the Marines, nor at the latter period were all the vacancies of officers killed in action filled, and although there were 5000 supernumeraries actually serving afloat without officers attached to them, the senior Captains had been from thirty five to thirty two years in the service. Notwithstanding the many advances that had been conferred on the various ranks in the navy. This circumstance is more fully noticed in our extracts from the Naval and Military Commission; and two memorials on the subject will be found in Appendix, Nos. 11, 12. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1809. In the General Orders issued by Lieutenant General Sir John Hope, congratulating the army upon the successful result of the Battle of Corunna on Monday16th of January.

1809. It is stated, “On no occasion has the undaunted valour of British troops ever been more manifest. At the termination of a severe and harassing march, rendered necessary by the superiority which the enemy had acquired, and which had materially impaired the efficiency of the troops, many disadvantages were to be encountered. These have all been surmounted by the conduct of the troops themselves, and the enemy has been taught, that, whatever advantages of position or of numbers he may possess, there is inherent in the British Officers and soldiers a bravery that knows not how to yield, that no circumstances can appal, and that will ensure victory, when it is to be obtained by the exertion of any human means. Active continental operations, or in maintaining colonial territories in distant and unfavourable climes.”

1809. Up to the peace in 1814, no general promotion took place in the Marines, nor at the latter period were all the vacancies of officers killed in action filled up, and although there were 5000 supernumeraries actually serving afloat without officers attached to them, the senior Captains had been from thirty-five to thirty-two years in the service, notwithstanding the many advances that had been conferred on the various ranks in the navy.

1809. while still a young Captain of Marines, Edward Nicolls married Miss Eleanor Bristow (1792–1880) who was also from Northern Ireland. Sir Edward and Lady Eleanor Nicolls appear on the United Kingdom Census 1861 in Greenwich, where Nicolls is listed as KCB and a retired General of Marines.

1810. Wednesday 10th January. Cherokee boarded and carried Aimable Nelly.

1810. Wednesday 10th January. Plover took Saratin in the Channel.

1810. Wednesday 10th January. Boats of Christian VII. and Armide in Basque Road.

1810. Friday 12th January. Scorpion captured Oreste.

1810. Friday 12th January. Booloe Comba captured from the Dutch.

1810. Thursday 18th January. Besiglio. Castle stormed and held. An official report: “The Royal Marines were led on with their usual gallantry by Lieutenat Moore whom I have had frequent occasion to mention for his bravery and conduct.”

1810. Saturday 20th January. French convoy driven on shore near La Rochelle.

1810. Sunday 21st January. The Storming of the batteries at Baie Mahut, Guadeloupe. Lieutenant Shillibeer and 30 Royal Marines served in a boat expedition which was sent in at dusk to cut out a brig protected by two batteries. She was boarded and taken under heavy fire. The Marines and seamen then waded ashore, the water reaching to their waists. On landing they at once dashed forward and drove the enemy from the nearest battery, and closing with their bayonets the Marines compelled them to abandon a position they had taken up in rear of a brick breastwork. Having thrown a 24 pounder over the cliff and buried 6 howitzers in the sand, the party renewed their advance and stormed the second battery of three24 pounders protected by a ditch around them. After destroying the guard house and spiking the guns, two vessels were burnt and the brig brought out “The gallant manner in which Lieutenant Shillibeer led the Royal Marines to the charge, as well as their steady discipline in keeping possession of the heights while the seamen were destroying the batteries”, were specially mentioned in the official report. On 6th February, Vieux Fort, Guadeloupe was stormed by Royal Marines under Captain C. Abbott.

1810. Saturday 27th January - 22nd March. The defence of the fort of Matagorda, near Cadiz. This small fort, not more than a hundred yards square, with no ditch and no bomb proofs, was held for nearly two months by a little garrison of 25 Royal Marines, 25 seamen from HMS Invincible, 25 Royal Artillerymen and 67 N.C.O’s and Privates of the 94th Regiment under Captain MacLean. The fort was close to the French lines at the Trocadero. “A Spanish 74 gunner and a Flotilla had co-operated in the resistance till day break on the 21st March, but then a hissing shower of heated shot made them cut their cables and run under the walls of Cadiz, while the fire of 48 guns and mortars of the largest size was turned on the fort, whose feeble parapet vanished before that crashing flight of metal, leaving only the naked rampart and undaunted hearts of the garrison for defence. The men fell fast and the enemy shot so quick and close, that a staff bearing the Spanish flag was broken six times in an hour, the colours were then fastened to the angle of the work itself, but unwillingly by the men, especially the sailors, all calling out to hoist the British ensign and attributing the slaughter to their fighting under a foreign flag. Thirty hours this tempest lasted, and 64 men out of 140 had fallen, when Graham (the General commanding Cadiz) finding a diversion he had projected impracticable, sent boats to carry off the survivors.” Napier’s Peninsular War.

1810. Sunday 28th January - 6th February. Capture of Guadaloupe by Pompee and fleet.

1810. Monday 29th January. Boats of Phoenix and Jalouse captured Charles.

1810. Saturday 3rd February. Valiant captured Confiance.

1810. Saturday 10th February. Thistle captured Dutch corvette Havik.

1810. Tuesday 13th February. Attack on French gunboats in Basque Road.

1810. Wednesday 14th February. Rainbow and Avon engaged Nereide.

1810. Saturday 17th February. The capture of the ‘Amboyna’. Royal Marines of HMS Cornwallis, HMS Dover and HMS Samatang formed part of a small force of 401 seamen, Royal Marines, Artillery and detachment of the Madras European Regiment which effected this capture against formidable fortifications manned by very superior numbers.

1810. Wednesday 21st February. Horatio captured Necessite.

1810. February. Capture of Amboyna from the Dutch.

1810. February. Surrender of the Islands of St. Martin, St. Eustatius, Saba, Saparoua, Harouka, Nasso Lant, Bouro, Manippa.

1810. Thursday 1st March. Boats of Cornwallis carried Margaretta.

1810. Thursday 22nd March. The attack on Santa Maura. The troops landed for the attack and had to advance over a narrow isthmus defended by two redoubts behind which was an entrenchment, mounting 4 guns, and having a wet ditch and an abbatis in front which extended to the sea on either side. It was manned by 500 troops. The British force consisted of 240 Royal Marines from HMS Monificent and HMS Belle Poule under the command Captain Snowe who formed the centre of the attacking line, 160 men of De Rolls’ Regiment placed on the right, 216 men of the Calabrian Free Corps on the left, with 100 men of the same Corps in reserve in the rear of each flank. Brigadier general Oswald of the Calabrian Corps was the senior officer present. The line advanced on the redoubts covered by the fire of the Leonidas frigate, and carried them at the point of the bayonet, after which it advanced, left and front on the entrenchment. At the first discharge from these the Calabrians threw themselves down and could not be got to advance in spite of every effort to rally them, and “the indignant treatment they received from the Marines”, remarked Nicholas. The latter, cheering, marched over their bodies, scrambled through the abbatis and drove the enemy out of their entrenchments at the bayonet’s point, pursuing them until recalled to garrison the redoubts previously captured. Brigadier General Oswald the next day issued and order in which he referred to the ‘Great Gallantry Displayed’ by the stormers and stated that “the intrepid manner in which the Royal Marines performed that service claims the highest admiration.” Siege was then laid to the citadel which, after an outwork had been taken, capitulated. The Marines lost 6 men killed, Captain Snowe and 16 men severely and Lieutenant Morrison and 5 men slightly wounded.

1810. Wednesday 4th April. Success and Espoir at Castiglione.

1810. Friday 6thv April. Sylvia destroyed armed piratical prow in Straits of Sunda.

1810. Saturday 7th April. Sylvia captured piratical prow.

1810. Wednesday 11th April. Sylvia and boats engaged and sank piratical lugger.

1810. Thursday 12th April. Unicorn captured Esperance (late British Laurel).

1810. Tuesday 24th April. Surly and Firm captured Alcide.

1810. Wednesday 25th April. Spartan and consorts engaged at Monte Circello.

1810. Thursday 26th April. Sylvia took Echo and two transports.

1810. Tuesday 1st May. French troops defeated at Jacolet, Isle of France.

1810. Thursday 3rd May. Spartan captured Sparviere in Bay of Naples.

1810. Saturday 12th May. Tribune engaged four Danish brigs.

1810. Tuesday 22nd May. Boats of Alceste at Agaye.

1810. Saturday 26th May. Boats of Alceste captured four feluccas.

1810. May and June. Royalist engaged and captured six armed vessels.

1810. May. According to a return of the 73rd Regiment there were also some Marines left at Hobart Australia numbering 50 of all ranks plus nine wives of Marine privates and 19 children.

1810. Thursday 21st June. Manado surrendered to Dover.

1810. Thursday 28th June. Boats of Amphion and consorts at Groa.

1810. Friday 29th June. A convoy cut out at Groa.

1810. June. Elaborate preparations were made for the capture of Reunion, or, as it was then called, Bourbon. Large numbers of British and Indian troops, together with transports, were assembled at Rodriguez, and on Sunday 24th June HMS Boadicea of 38 guns and Captain Josias Rowley. HMS Nereide of 36 guns. Captain Nisbet and Josiah Willoughby from off Mauritius, arrived to escort the expedition.

1810. Friday 6th July. They sailed and made a rendezvous, about 50 miles from Reunion, with a small squadron which, under Captain Samuel Pym of HMS Sirius with 36 guns had previously been cruising off Mauritius. This squadron consisted of the HMS Iphigenia with 36 guns, Captain Henry Lambert, and HMS Magicienne of 36 guns. At the rendezvous 3650 troops were divided, and arrangements were perfected, and on the 7th, the ships bore away for the different points of disembarkation. The first brigade, under Lieutenant Colonel Frazier, was to land at Grande Chaloupe, about six miles west of St. Denis, the capital, and the remaining three brigades, under Lieutenant Colonels Henry S. Keating (senior officer), Campbell, and Drummond, were to be thrown ashore at Riviere des Pluies, about three miles to the eastward. In the afternoon, while the enemy, who had about 600 regulars and 2700 militia men on the island, was distracted by a demonstration off St. Marie, Frazier, with 950 men and some howitzers, was landed at Grande Chaloupe without opposition, and Lieutenant John Wyatt Watling of HMS Sirius occupied a height which protected the force from molestation during the following night. At Riviere des Pluies, on the weather side of the island, conditions were less favourable, although Willoughby, still suffering from his musket accident, effected a landing with a few seamen and about 150 troops, the operation was not carried out without the drowning of four people in the surf, and the loss of several boats.

1810. Saturday 7th - 8th July. Boadicea and consorts took Isle of Bourbon.

1810. Monday 9th July. Boats of Sirius captured Edward.

1810. Tuesday 17th July. Euryalus engaged a French 74 off Toulon.

1810. Friday 20th July. Warspite and consorts off Toulon.

1810. Tuesday 23th July. Boats of Belvidera and Nemesis on the coast of Norway.

1810. Thursday 25th July. Thames and consorts at Amanthe.

1810. Monday 30th July 30. Boats of Procris took six gunboats.

1810. July Boats of Sirius destroyed a French stores ship.

1810. July. The capture of Reunion.

1810. Thursday 9th August. Caroline, Piedmontaise, and Barracouta took Banda Neira.

1810. Monday 13th August. The capture of Isle De La Passe, involving Marines on board HMS Nereide, HMS Sirius and HMS Staunch.

1810. Friday 17th August. Porte du Diable stormed and carried.

1810. Monday 20th August. Nereide engaged French frigates off Isle de la Passe.

1810. Tuesady 21st August. Boats of Sirius cut out a French prize.

1810. Thursday 23rd - 28th August. Nereide and consorts taken at Grand Port.

1810. Wednesday 29th August. Queen Charlotte repulsed a French cutter off Alderney.

1810. Thursday 30th August. Repulse and Philomel repulsed frigates off Toulon.

1810. Wednesday 5th September. Boats of Surveillante captured a French brig.

1810. Thursday 6th September. Battery captured and destroyed in the River Crache.

1810. Friday 7th September. Boats of Dreadnought carried a French vessel.

1810. Tuesday 11th September. Boats of Africaine engaged a French schooner.

1810. Tuesday 13th September. Africaine taken by Astree aud Iphigenie, but re-taken.

1810. Monday 17th September. Ceylon taken by Venus and Victor.

1810. Tuesday 18th September. Boadicea, Otter, and Staunch took Venus.

1810. Thursday 27th September. Three brigs cut out at Point Du Che. HMS Caledia and HMS Valliant were sent to destroy three French brigs lying under the protection of a battery at Point du Che near La Rochelle. Five officers and 130 men of the Royal Marines were landed at half past two in the morning in order to capture the battery. As the boats pulled in to attack the brigs they were discovered and fired upon. Lieutenant Little of the Royal Marine Artillery mentions in an official despatch that immediately upon landing pushed forward with the bayonet to assault. Supported by Captain McLachlan’s division, with Lieutenant Coulter, both of the Royal Marines, and Lieutenant Couche with a separate detachment, and succeeded in carrying the battery and spiking all the guns. Lieutenant little in a personal encounter with one of the enemy, when in the act of wrestling his musket from him, deceived the contents in his hand, which was so much shattered in consequence as to render amputation necessary. After the capture of the redoubt a French force advanced from the village, but was checked by the fire of the Marines and one of the boats. They then brought up two field pieces to take the Marines in flank, but they instantly charged them with the bayonet, and captured the guns. Meanwhile the boats carried out the destruction of the brigs, and the detachment of Marines was re-embarked in perfect order. Lieutenant Little received a reward from the Patriotic Fund, a pension for wounds of £70 a year and an appointment at the Woolwich Division.

1810. Friday 28th September. Boats of Rambler defeated French Dragoons.

1810. Sunday 14th October. Briseis captured Sans Souci in North Sea.

1810. Friday 19th October - 19th December. Capture of Isle of France by Illustrious and consorts.

1810. Thursday 25th October. Calliope captured Comtesse d'Hambourg.

1810. Saturday 27th October. Orestes took Loup Garou.

1810. Sunday 4th November. Boats of Blossom captured Cesar.

1810. Thursday 8th November. Boats of Quebec captured Jeune Louise.

1810. Monday 12th - 23rd November. Diana and consorts engaged at Lahougue and Tatillon

1810. Thursday 15th - 16th November. Phipps captured Barbier de Seville.

1810. Friday 23rd November. Attack Port St. Mary by boats of the Cadiz fleet.

1810. Thursday 29th November. Three battalions were raised from among the Royal Marines during the Napoleonic Wars, seeing combat in Portugal, Northern Spain, the Netherlands and North America.
The First Battalion
The 1st battalion formed at Plymouth on Thursday 29th November 1810 under the command of Major Richard Williams. It consisted of six companies, plus an attached company of Royal Marine Artillery. It embarked, arriving in Lisbon on 8 December 1810.
The battalion grew to eight companies, plus the attached artillery company. It left Portugal in February 1812, and disembarked at Portsmouth. There it remained until 6th June 1812, when it embarked aboard HMS Diadem. The battalion arrived off the coast near Santoña on 15 June, and was involved in the attack on the fort at Castro Urdiales. The fort's garrison of two companies of infantry capitulated on 8th July, the French having evacuated the town the day before. On 10th July, the battalion re-embarked, intending to go to Portugalete, but returned to Castro shortly afterwards. The French, unawares that the marines had returned, launched an unsuccessful counter-attack against the fort's Bilbao gate. Major Williams was appointed commander of the fort on 30th July.
The Royal Navy attacked Santander from 30th July onwards, with the French evacuating the town on 3th August. The first six companies of the 1st battalion embarked for Santander to support the attack and arrived on 4th August. This force re-embarked on 10 August for an intended attack on Gitaya, its destination changing to Portugalete, where it arrived on 12 August. After the marines had destroyed a fort that the French had abandoned, the marines re-embarked and returned to Santander.
The force disembarked at Zumaia on 18th August, along with the 2nd battalion. The artillery companies of both battalions deployed opposite the rock of Gitaya. Both battalions held the area until ordered to re-embark on 20th September.
During October, the 1st battalion was deployed before Santoña, at Castello.[disambiguation needed] The news that a French division was approaching to reinforce the 1,500 men garrison at Santoña led to the recall of the battalion on 1st November. However, the recall was countermanded, and the battalion resumed its positions; it returned to Santander on 14th December.
On 21st December the 1st battalion, which numbered 536 rank and file, and its artillery company sailed from Santander in HMS Fox, HMS Latona, and HMS Venerable, arriving at St Helens, Isle of Wight on 31st December. The right wing (aboard Fox and Venerable) received orders to proceed to Plymouth on 6th January 1813, where the battalion was to perform garrison duty at Plymouth and to prepare for imminent deployment to North America.
The 1st Battalion embarked (on the ships Diadem (1st to 5th companies) and Diomede (6th to 8th companies and artillery) on 30th March, set sail on 7th April, and arrived in Bermuda on 29th May 1813. There it and the infantry already present were formed into two brigades. The embarked artillery brigade, supporting both battalions, comprised 131 officers and men, four 6-pounder guns, two 8" howitzers, two 5.5" howitzers, two 10" mortars, and a quantity of Congreve rocket launching frames, with associated munitions, all under the command of Captain Thomas Parke.
On 25 June, the 1st Battalion participated in the attack on Hampton, Virginia. On 13 July, the Marine Battalions were involved in the occupation of Ocracoake and Portsmouth, and engaged in the occupation of Kent Island on 7th August. Later in the year, the 1st Battalion went to Ile aux Noix, south of Montreal in Canada, while the 2nd Battalion went to Prescott, on the Saint Lawrence River.
A detachment of the 1st Battalion, under Lieutenants Caldwell and Barton, was present at the Battle of Lacolle Mills (1814). On 16th August 1814, the battalion received orders to be "disposed for Naval service", with the greater part of the battalion to go to Lake Ontario and the remainder to go to Lake Champlain. In November 1814 the First Battalion was reconstituted in Quebec, and shipped south in support of operations off the coast of Georgia.
The Second Battalion, July 1812 to May 1814:
The Second Battalion was formed at Chatham, and deployed to Portsmouth in July 1812. It consisted of six companies under the command of Major James Malcolm. On 15th August, the battalion embarked aboard HMS Latona (1st and 2nd companies) and HMS Fox (3rd to 6th companies), to deploy in Northern Spain under the command of the squadron of Home Riggs Popham. The battalion disembarked at Zumaia on 18th August, and joined up with Spanish forces under the command of Francisco de Longa. The battalion re-embarked on 20th September, and were landed at Santander on 28th September.
Further reinforcements for the battalion disembarked soon after Diadem arrived on 29th November at Santander, resulting in two companies being added and another company of artillery countermanded. Some of the reinforcements had returned from garrison duty on the island of Anholt, Denmark.
On 21st December the 2nd battalion sailed from Santander, along with the left wing of the 1st battalion, aboard Latona, arriving on 4th January. Diadem carried the 1st, 2nd, 7th, 8th & 10th companies, HMS Iriscarried the 2nd Battalion's artillery company (Captain Parke) and supplemental company (Captain Wilkinson), with the remainder of the battalion (5 companies) embarked upon the transports Whitton and Mariner, leaving the town to Spanish forces commanded by General Mendizabal. The surviving muster lists show the Marines disembarked at Plymouth on 7th January 1813.
The deployment of both battalions in Northern Spain forced the French to redeploy 30,000 men, away from the Salamanca campaign. The Duke of Wellington was so impressed that he requested they would be placed under his command, but was rebuffed by the Admiralty.
Given the heterogeneous nature of the battalion, and its deployment in Spain immediately after inception, Major Malcolm felt that the 2nd Battalion was lacking in discipline. He requested that the 2nd Battalion be deployed to the barracks at Berry Head Fort in Torbay, so that drilling of the unit would result in better discipline and cohesion. The 2nd Battalion was dispatched to Berry Head on 14 January aboard HMS Diadem and HMS Latona, having boarded on 12th January. Within a month of the battalion's arrival in Berry Head Fort, the intensive drill bore fruit.
The 2nd Battalion embarked on the ships HMS Romulus, HMS Diomede, HMS Nemesis, and HMS Fox on 30th March, set sail on 7th April with the ships carrying the 1st Battalion, the transport vessel Mariner (containing two rocket detachments with an establishment of 25 men, each commanded by a Lieutenant) and HMS Superb (which was carrying troops of the 8th Royal Veteran Battalion) and arrived in Bermuda on 29th May, where the Marines and the Royal Veterans, with the two Independent Companies of Foreigners already present upon the island, were formed into two brigades.
The 2nd Battalion was employed alongside the 1st Battalion until late in 1813, when the 2nd Battalion was deployed to Prescott, on the Saint Lawrence River. On 6th May 1814, it participated in the Battle of Fort Oswego (1814), suffering fatalities of one Captain, two Sergeants and four Other Ranks. Its final engagement was the Battle of Big Sandy Creek, where an element of the battalion made up part of the 180-man force. Thereafter, the battalion's companies were broken up and its men were dispersed among the squadron and flotilla on Lake Ontario, as per orders from Commodore James Lucas Yeo.
From May 1814: Following the order, the 2nd Battalion ceased to exist as a fighting force. All that remained were the staff elements. When the 3rd Battalion arrived in Chesapeake, they were renumbered as the 2nd Battalion and came under the command of Lieutenant Colonel James Malcolm (Royal Marines officer). Upon the orders of Vice Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane, three of the ten companies were detached from this unit, to become the regenerated 3rd Battalion, under the command of Major Lewis. (These three companies were commanded by Captain Clements, Lt Connolly and Lt Stevens.
The recreated 2nd Battalion was present in the Chesapeake campaign, participating in the Battle of Bladensburg, the attack on Washington, and the Battle of Baltimore. Also present during the campaign were the three companies of the Corps of Colonial Marines under the command of an army officer, Captain Reed (of the 6th West India Regiment), and a composite battalion of Marines, formed from ships' Marine detachments, frequently led by Captain John Robyns. A composite "battalion" of 100 men also took part in the Battle of New Orleans, under the command of Brevet Major Thomas Adair.
Following the failure of the British attack against Fort McHenry on 13 September, the 2nd and 3rd Marine battalions proceeded to Tangier Island, where a barracks for 600 men was created on the understanding they would be spending the winter on the island.
Orders were received on 11th December to embark, the Marines later disembarking on Cumberland Island on 10th January 1815, along with the 1st Battalion and two companies of the 2nd West India Regiment. Thereafter, this force attacked Fort Peter on 13th January, subsequently marching on the town of St. Marys, and occupying it for about a week, before retiring to Cumberland Island.
It is understood that an element of the 2nd Battalion could have participated in the Battle of New Orleans. The musters show three dead men (from the First and Third companies commanded by Captain Coles & Lieutenant Fynmore respectively) and several men wounded.
Ironically, the battalion's final action was a purely artillery engagement. The battalion's rocket detachment, commanded by Lieutenant John Lawrence, were on HMS Tonnant, and were put ashore on 7th February 1815, to participate in the attack on Fort Bowyer. (Their penultimate engagement was the Battle of New Orleans.) Thereafter they returned to Portsmouth and were disembarked on 11 May 1815. The infantry companies were embarked aboard HMS Albion for the return to England in 1815. The artillery company was disembarked at Chatham on 20 May 1815.
The Third Battalion December 1813 to August 1814
After Napoleon's defeat at Leipzig in October 1813, the French troops retreated to France. A provisional government was formed, the Driemanschap, which invited the exiled Prince William VI of Orange to The Hague.
A token British force accompanied the Prince of Orange to the Netherlands in November 1813. Most of the British army was fighting the Peninsular War, so the 2nd Battalion 2nd Foot Guards and several companies of Marines were hastily embarked at Deal. These companies were to form the nucleus of the 3rd Battalion. A further two companies of Marines arrived on 19th December, accompanied by Major George Lewis, who assumed command of the Marines.
This force was involved in fighting around Krabbendijke, until Russian troops relieved them on 18th January. When the marines arrived in Portsmouth on 21st January, they were formed into the Third Battalion. The battalion had an establishment of ten companies of 100 men, and one company of Royal Marine Artillery. The battalion was commanded by Major George Lewis, who since 19th December 1813 had been the officer commanding the Marine companies deployed in the Netherlands.
The Artillery company were issued with knapsacks just prior to their departure. The battalion embarked on 29th March, set sail on 7th April, and disembarked at Bermuda. The infantry companies were aboard HMS Regulus, HMS Melpomene and HMS Brune, with the artillery aboard HMS Tonnant. After a sojourn, the battalion sailed for the Chesapeake on 30th June, and joined Admiral Cockburn's squadron on 16th July. Just prior to the liaison, a detachment of 12 Royal Marine gunners (with two howitzers and a field piece) and 100 Royal Marine infantry were transferred to HMS Hermes and HMS Carron, to accompany Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Edward Nicolls to Florida, where they would remain for the duration of the war.
On the morning of 19th July, the battalion landed near Leonardtown and advanced in concert with ships of the squadron, causing the US forces to withdraw. The battalion was deployed to the south of the Potomac, moving down to Nomini. The battalion was subsequently landed at St Clements Bay on 23rd July, Machodoc creek on 26th July, and Chaptico, Maryland on 30th July.
The first week of August was spent raiding the entrance to the Yeocomico River, which concluded with the capture of four schooners at the town of Kinsale, Virginia. On 7th August, the battalion stormed a gun battery of three artillery pieces, situated on the Coan River (a few miles below the Yaocomico river).
During the Chesapeake campaign the 3rd Battalion participated in the Battle of Bladensburg, the attack on Washington, and the Battle of Baltimore. The attack on Washington cost the Navy one man killed and six wounded.
After Lieutenant Colonel James Malcolm arrived, the battalion was split into the reconstituted second battalion, and the third battalion (composed of Royal and Colonial Marines), as outlined below.
From September 1814 to 1815:
Vice Admiral Alexander Cochrane ordered that three of the 10 companies from this unit become the nucleus of a regenerated 3rd Battalion, under the command of Major Lewis. These three companies joined the three companies of the Corps of Colonial Marines, formed in May of that year, to make a new 3rd Battalion Royal and Colonial Marines. The Colonial Marines had made their combat debut on the raid on Pungoteague Creek (30th May 1814), with one fatal casualty, and had then carried out incursions at Chesconessex Creek in June and Onancock in August and were involved in the Washington campaign with one man killed and three wounded. Prior to the establishment of the Corps, some of its men had been employed to good effect as scouts and guides with raiding parties.
The 3rd Battalion subsequently deployed to Cumberland Island along with the 1st and 2nd Battalions. When news reached the troops that peace had been made, the 3rd Battalion embarked on 10th March, disembarking on Ireland Island, Bermuda, on 21st March. The battalion's several Colonial companies were renamed the 3rd Battalion Colonial Marines and, after 16 months of garrison duty in the new Royal Naval Dockyard, were settled on new lands in Trinidad on 20th August 1816, forming the community of "the Merikens" in the areas known since then as the "Company Villages". The three remaining Royal Marine companies of the original 3rd Battalion departed Bermuda in May 1815 to return to England.
(by Tom C/Wikepedia/Editor)

1810. Monday 3rd December. The capture of Mauritius. A battalion of Royal Marines from the men of war present served with the Army under Major General Hon. John Abercromby, who reported that “The battalion of the Royal Marines, under the command of Captain Liardet, supported the reputation of his distinguished Corps.”

1810. Friday 7th December. Rinaldo captured Marandeur off Dover.

1810. Monday 10th December. Rosario captured Mameloucke off Dungeness.

1810. Wednesday 12th December. Entreprenante repulsed four French privateers.

1810. Thursday 13th December. The destruction of armed and other vessels at Palamos. The Royal Marines from the HMS Kent, HMS Ajax and HMS Cambrian, 250 in number, and having occupied the enemy’s batteries without much resistance, the seamen brought out most of the shipping. But in retiring through the town to re-embark they were attacked and lost 12 killed, 22 wounded, and 43 missing.

1810. Monday 17th December. Rinaldo sank a French lugger off the Owers.

1810. Monday 24th December. Boats of Diana destroyed Elise.

1810 - 1850. The Marines uniform of the day. (taken from 'Britain's Sea Soldiers: Vol 1 by Cyril Field RMLI).

1810. Spain and Portugal. In addition to the services of the Royal Marine Battalions already mentioned, it should be said that the 3rd or innermost line of the series of defences famous as the Lines of Torres Vedras was occupied by the Royal Marines. This interior line extended from Passo d’Arcos, on the Tagus, to the Tower of Junquerra on the coast, near Fort St. Julian, was an entrenched camp occupied by the Royal Marines. In Autumn of this year, at the suggestion of the Duke of Wellington, Admiral Berkeley in command of the British squadron in the Tagus, formed a Naval Brigade of 500 Royal Marines, and the same number of seamen. Captain Lawford RN of HMS Impetueux was in command. There were nine Captains of Marines in the Brigade and as many subalterns as could be spared. “Leaving only one to each ship of the line.” There was also a proportion of Naval Officers. The Brigade seems to have marched up the left bank of the Tagus, on which there was an armed British flotilla, to Almeirim, a place nearly opposite to Sanarem where Marshal Massena was building and assembling boats with which to cross the river, probably with a view of out flanking the lines of Torres Vedras. The right of the first line rested on the Tagus at Alhandra, some miles further down. Attempts were made to destroy some of Massena’s boats which were drawn up on the beach by gun fire, but with little result. Captain Ross RN seems to have been the senior officer of Marines in the brigade. Meanwhile, a Battalion of Marines referred to by Napier “As a superb body of Marines” had been despatched from England, and upon its arrival the seamen were recalled to their ships as “Their Lordships cannot approve of the landing of seamen of the fleet.” It was this Battalion that held the third of the Torres Vedras Lines, as mentioned above. Lieutenant Ashmore, Royal Marines, who was on HMS Picquet near Santarem, on the night of Massena’s retreat from the Torres Vedras, was the first to report the enemy’s movement. (Author Unknown)

1810. The 1812 War. With a need to free troops for service in the Peninsula, the Admiralty in 1810 created a battalion of marines and sent them to be a part of the garrison in Lisbon. This was done by combining men from each of the four marine divisions. In 1812, this unit served aboard Admiral Popham's fleet off the North Coast of Spain where they were joined by a second battalion. Together, by being landed here and there, they managed to disrupt coastal traffic and supplies, capture several towns and ports and pin down the northern division of the French Army.
Wishing to pursue the war with America, the two battalions were recalled to England, re-equipped and then sent to the Chesapeake Bay. They arrived in June 1813. With the Navy and several other units, they proceeded to roam at will up and down the bay creating chaos wherever they landed. Both battalions were withdrawn in September and sent to aid in the defence of Canada. By May of 1814, the 2nd was used to augment Commodore Yeo's ships on Lake Ontario and the remainder were merged with the 1st. In July, the 1st was also "disposed for Naval Service".
In 1814, with the demise of Napoleon, Britain decided to send a larger force to America and the Chesapeake. Along with regiments from the Peninsular army, a third battalion of Royal Marines was organized from detachments in Holland and again from the divisions in England and added to the force. Upon reaching the region, this battalion was renumbered the 2nd and was combined with the 21st Foot to create General Ross' 3rd Brigade and served as such at Bladensburg and North Point. A new 3rd battalion was created by Admiral Cockburn by joining three companies of Royal Marines and three companies of Colonial Marines.
In addition to the above battalions, Marines from the ships in the Chesapeake were used as landing forces and raiding parties throughout the campaign. Frequently, provisional battalions were formed from these Marines, and sometimes with sailors, and were used to reinforce the regular units. This occurred at North Point. Another provisional battalion was thrown together for the assault on New Orleans and along with the 85th, managed to breach the American line on the south side of the Mississippi. A company sized detachment operated independently out of Pensacola among the Creek Indians in the southeast.
As can be seen, the Royal Marines served throughout the War of 1812 (and the Napoleonic Wars) in every capacity and every theatre of operations. By 1814, there were approximately 30,000 Marines in service throughout the world.

1811. Thursday 10th January. Tamatave bombarded.

1811. Monday 4th February. Boats of Cerberus and Aciiz’c at Pescaro.

1811. Tuesday 12th February. The cutting out of vessels at Ortona.

1811. Tuesday 5th March – 6th March. The Battle of Barossa. The Royal Marines co-operated in the battle of Barossa by storming the enemy’s batteries at the mouth of the Guadelete, they were brigaded with two Spanish Regiments and ordered to destroy the batteries, which they did, but with the French coming down in force they were obliged to re-embark under heavy fire. A detachment under Captain G. Nicholson 300 strong was sent to destroy a battery at Tota. Which they blew up after spiking the guns. On the 6th March parties of Royal Marines and Seamen were landed between Rota and Catalina. A 4 gun redoubt near Santa Maria was stormed by a detachment under Captain P. Fottrell Royal Marines, and with the exception of the Fort at Catalina which was too strong to be attempted by coup-fe-main, all the coast defences between Santa Maria and Rota were dismantled and their guns spiked.

1811. Monday 8th March. Two Marines were executed on board the Zealous, at Lisbon, for the murder of a Sergeant of Marines. Their trial disclosed the following wicked, and in other respects, singular circumstances: the deceased Sergeant had been sent with the two prisoners to do duty on board one of the prison ships in the Tagus. In the course of the night they planned to call the Sergeant from his cot, under pretense of his being wanted. On his proceeding to the part of the ship requested, they way-laid him and pushed him overboard. It may be supposed that he had made himself obnoxious to them; but this did not appear. On the deceased's being missed, it obtained general belief on board the prison ship that he had jumped overboard; but it was not warranted by the man's general character, for he was a sober discreet man, and a good soldier. The first intimation of his death to his shipmates on board the Zealous, was by the sentinel upon deck seeing his hat pass by the ship in the Tagus. The sentinel instantly knew it belonged to him, and inquiry ensued; no suspicion, however, fell upon the prisoners, nor was it necessary for the ends of justice, for their consciences so lacerated them after the first hour they had committed the crime, that, as they confessed to their comrades, they had no rest day or night. Their voluntary confession led to their trial, and they told the court they had not slept since, but were constantly visited by a distempered imagination, of being in the presence of the deceased ghost. Both of them it afterwards appeared were notorious characters. The name of one of them was Brown. They died very penitent. (sic)

1811. Saturday 11th March. We must now particularly direct the attention of our readers to the manly and energetic letter addressed to the right hon. Charles Yorke, then first lord of the Admiralty, by colonels Desborough and Tench, in March 1811, calling his attention to the neglected position of the corps, (Appendix 16). Mr. Yorke, in acknowledging the receipt of this letter, informed colonel Desborough "that the subject was still under the consideration of the Board;" but no further satisfaction was given to this firm, yet respectful remonstrance. Confining our remarks to a mere outline of the progress of the corps, we have placed in the Appendix some of the numerous memorials that were from time to time presented to the Board of Admiralty. These documents will be found deserving of an attentive perusal ; for while they exhibit a painful contrast to the advantages enjoyed by other branches of his Majesty's service, they evince that respectful submission and forbearance which has ever characterized the corps of Marines; and they at the same time afford indisputable evidence, that with the exception of being styled " Royal," the corps has never been honoured by any spontaneous act of favour ; and that every amelioration has been obtained either by respectful remonstrance, or by ear- nest supplication. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1811. Wednesday 13th March. Hoste’s victory off Lissa.

1811. Sunday 24th - 25th March. Berwick and consorts destroyed Amazone.

1811. Monday 25th - 27th March. The defence of Anholt. It maybe remarked that in the account of Captain J. W. Maurice RN who commanded at Anholt, in O’Byrne’s Naval Biography, the Royal Marines are not even mentioned as forming the garrison, while it says that “he rendered his name for ever famous by the brilliant manner in which he defeated an attempt made to reduce it (Anholt) by a Danish flotilla and Army.

1811. Wednesday 27th March. Sheldrake and Tartar captured five Danish gun-brigs.

1811. Saturday 6th April. Arrow in action with Chasse Marées.

1811. Wednesday 1st May. Pomone and consorts destroyed Giraffe and Nourrice.

1811. Saturday 4th - 5th May. Belle Poule and Alceste at Parenza.

1811. Wednesday 8th May. Scylla boarded and carried Canonniere.

1811. Thursday 16th May. Little Belt engaged U.S. frigate President.

1811. Monday 20th May. Schomberg captured Renommee and Nereide off Madagascar.

1811. Wednesday 23rd May. Capture of 14 Dutch gun-vesseis off Java.

1811. Saturday 26th May. Boats of Sanine engaged at Sabiona.

1811. Saturday 26th May. Party from Pilot took positions at Strongooli.

1811. Saturday 26th May. Alacrity captured by Abeille.

1811. Sunday 27th June. Guadaloupe engaged Tactique and Guepe.

1811. Thursday 4th Ju1y. Boats of Unite captured St. François de Poale.

1811. Thursday 4th July. Unite and Cephalus captured three merchant vessels.

1811. Friday 19th July. Conqueror and Sultan engaged French squadron off Toulon.

1811. Sunday 21st July. The cutting out of 26 vessels at Porto Del Infreschi.

1811. Sunday 21st July. Cephalus and Thames captured 11 French gunboats and consorts.

1811. Saturday 27th July. The cutting out of 28 vessels at Ragosniza, Dalmatia.

1811. Tuesday 30th July. Boats of Minden took Fort Marrack.

1811. Wednesday 31st July. Boats of Procris destroyed six Dutch gunboats off Java.

1811. Wednesday 31st July. Brevdrageren and Algerine engaged three Danish brigs.

1811. July. The Second Battalion was formed at Chatham, and deployed to Portsmouth. It consisted of six companies under the command of Major James Malcolm. On Saturday 15th August, the battalion embarked aboard HMS Fox (3rd to 6th companies) and HMS Latona (1st and 2nd companies), to deploy in Northern Spain under the command of the squadron of Home Riggs Popham. The battalion disembarked at Zumaia on Tuesday 18th August, and joined up with Spanish forces under the command of Francisco de Longa. The battalion re-embarked on Sunday 20th September, and were landed at Santander on Monday 28th September. Further reinforcements for the battalion disembarked soon after Diadem arrived on Tuesday 29th November at Santander, resulting in two companies being added and another company of artillery being formed. Some of the reinforcements had returned from garrison duty on the island of Anholt, Denmark. The deployment of both battalions in Northern Spain forced the French to redeploy 30,000 men, away from the Salamanca campaign. The Duke of Wellington was so impressed that he requested they would be placed under his command, but was rebuffed by the Admiralty.

1811. Friday 2nd August. Boats of Quebec and consorts took three gun-brigs.

1811. Sunday 4th - 7th August. Capture of Java by the British.

1811. Tuesday 13th August. Temerairc and Caledonia engaged a battery near Toulon.

1811. Sunday 18th August. Hawke and boats took Heron and convoy.

1811. Saturday 24th August. Diana and Semiramis cut out Teazer and Pluvier.

1811. Thursday 29th - 31st August. Capture of Madura by Sir Francis Drake and consorts.

1811. August – September. The Conquest of Java. A Battalion of Royal Marines under the command of Brevet Major F. Liardet was landed to reinforce the Army under Sir Samuel Achmuty. Batavia having been occupied without resistance, the British advanced against the Dutch Army which was entrenched at Meester Cornelis, about 9 miles from the city. After some days fighting an assault was ordered under the command of General Gillespie. The men detailed for this were 250 of the Royal Marines Battalion, the Grenadiers of the 78th and two companies of the 89th Regiment. The troops moved forward at midnight on the 25th August, and after a desperate struggle, in which the Royal Marines bore a most distinguished part, carried all before them. 257 officers including 3 Generals and 5,000 men were made prisoners and more than 1,000 were found dead in the works. After the battle Sir Samuel Achmuty thus addressed the battalion, “I have halted you to express my high opinion of the zeal and gallantry displayed by the Royal Marines, who were attached to the advance under general Gillespie in the action of the 25th. I cannot sufficiently express my gratitude for their exemplary good conduct, I beg you therefore to accept my warmest thanks, and to communicate the same to the officers and men under your command.

On the 31st August an expedition was sent to Cheribon to intercept the retreat of the Dutch General Jansens from Meester Cornelis. As it would have taken too long to embark troops for the purpose, HMS Nisus, HMS President, HMS Phoebe and HMS Hesper were sent round and landed their Royal Marines together with the detachment belonging to HMS Lion, amounting to 180 men in all, who were under the command of Captain Welchman of the Royal Marines. The fort of Cheribon surrendered and was occupied by Captain Welchman and his Marines, but on the news arriving of the approach of 250 men of the enemy’s Infantry and of the same number of Cavalry from Buitzenburg, the Marine Garrison was relieved by a detachment of seamen in order that it might be free to assume the offensive.

The Marines and fifty seamen were therefore mounted on horseback, and under the command of Captain Welchman Royal Marines, were pushed forward by forced march’s to attack a fort at Carang Sambang about 35 miles off in the interior of the island. This small advanced force was supported by a body of troops under the command of Colonel Wood. Captain Welchman captured 22 chests of money at Bongas, about half way to Catang Sambang, which were sent back by Colonel Wood, and pushing on met a Dutch officer with a flag of truce proposing the surrender of Carang Sambang. A great quantity of stores was taken at this place including coffee to the value of 250,000 Spanish dollars, as well as a large number of prisoners. The Marines were now re-embarked as HMS Nisus and HMS Phoebe were moving along the coast, landed them successively at Panca and Taggal, both of which places were taken. Samarang, Gressie, and Sourabaya were occupied shortly afterwards, the main body of the Marines being under the command of Captain Bunce who had become senior officer present by the death of Major Liardet from dysentery. Lieutenant White Royal Marines, of HMS Minden who, with his detachment and a party of the 14th Regiment had been landed to keep open communications with Pangorah and to procure supplies for the squadron, was sharply attacked by considerable body of the enemy with two guns, After 12 minutes fighting they were driven off, but just as reinforcements were arriving from the 14th and 89th Regiments they renewed the attack in great force. They were again defeated with some loss. Captain E.W. Hoare. R.N. from HMS Minden, in making his official report of this affair wrote: “I feel it my duty to report the conduct of Captain Robert White of the Royal Marines, who commanded at the first attack, assisted by two officers of the 14th Regiment. I was astonished at the bravery and coolness displayed by those officer and their men.” The reduction of the neighbouring Island of Madura was effected by the seamen and Marines of HMS Drake and HMS Phaeton, although the native troops had been strengthened by the landing of a French force. Effecting a landing under cover of the darkness, the small British force advanced on the Fort of Samanap, the capital of the Island, in two columns, each consisting of 60 bayonets (presumably Marines) and 20 pike men. The Marine detachment of the ‘Hussar’ acted as a reserve. The fort was taken by a sudden rush just before daybreak. A spirited battle with a very superior force followed as soon as it was light in which the resolution and superior tactics of the British secured them the victory. Lieutenant Roch, Royal Marines, was twice speared by the native pike men while wresting the colours from a French officer, whom he slew in the contest. The Conquest of Java was now complete and the captors were rewarded by distribution of prize money to the value of the property taken which amounted to no less than a million sterling. (sic) 

1811. Monday 2nd September. Manly taken by Danish brigs off the coast of Norway.

1811. Tuesday 3rd September. Rinaldo and Redpole engaged a flotilla off Boulogne.

1811. Friday 6th September. Pilot dispersed troops at Castellan.

1811. Saturday 7th September. Barbadoes and Goshawk engaged at Calvados.

1811. Sunday 8th September. Hotspur destroyed three gun brigs oI Calvados.

1811. Monday 9th - 13th September. Bucephalus engaged Nymphe and Meduse off Java.

1811. Tuesday 10th September. Boats of Victory captured Danish gunboats.

1811. Thursday 20th - 21st September. Naiad and consorts engaged a flotilla off Boulogne.

1811. Friday 11th October. Imperieuse silenced forts at Possitano.

1811. Saturday 19th October. Imperieuse and Thames took 10 polacres at Palinuro.

1811. Friday 1st - 3th November. Palinuro Heights carried by party from Imperieuse and consort.

1811. Monday 11th November. Skylark and Locust engaged the Boulogne flotilla.

1811. Friday 22nd November. Volontaire and Perlen engaged Trident and two frigates.

1811. Wednesday 27th November. Eagle captured Cereyre.

1811. Friday 29th November. Alceste, Active, and Unite took Pomone and Porsanne.

1811. Wednesday 4th December. Boats of Sultan took Langitedocienne.

1811. Royal Navy and Royal Marines tensions over status and power came to a head during a disagreement about battle rewards after the 'Defence of Anholt'. Governor of the Anholt Garrison Captain Maurice RN wrote up the actions of the Defence of Anholt, downplaying the efforts of the Royal Marines officers and garrison, and instead focussed on the achievements of the Royal Navy frigates, petitioning for their officers' promotion.
In retaliation, the garrison, made up almost exclusively of Royal Marines, presented Captain Torrens with a sword. Torrens, realising it would not help the relations with the admiralty, refused to accept it until Maurice had received one. The officers of the garrison then presented Torrens with another sword, and relations between Maurice and Torrens broke down. Court martial and counter court martial followed, and eventually both Maurice and Torrens were removed from their commands. The Royal Marines museum has all three of these presentation swords in their collection.

1812. A recruiting poster of the day. (taken from 'Britain's Sea Soldiers: Vol 1 by Cyril Field RMLI).

1812. The field-officers below the rank of commandant-ensecond, who had attained the rank of major-general, became supernumeraries, and were excused from active duty; such duty being performed by field-officers promoted in consequence of these vacancies. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1812. Saturday 18th January. The Leicester Chronicle. (Admiralty Office Saturday 11th January.)
From Sir. Edward Pellew of His Majesty's ship IMPERIEUSE in the Gulph.)
Sir:- I have the honour to inform you that his Majesty's Ship under, my command attacked three of the enemy's gun vessels, carrying each an eighteen pounder and thirty men, moored under the walls of a strong Fort, near the town of Passitana in the Gulph of Salernoes the Imperieuse was anchored about eleven o'clock within the range of grope, and in a few minutes the enemy were driven from their guns and one of the gunboats was sunk.
It however became absolutely necessary to get possession of the fort, the fire of which, thought silenced, yet (form its being regularly walled round on all sides), the ship could not dislodge the soldiers -and those of the vessels' crews, who had made their escape on shore and taken shelter in it.
The Marines and a party of seamen were therefore landed and led on by the first Lieutenant EATON TRAVERS, and Lieutenant PIPON of the Royal Marines forced their way into the battery in the most gallant style, -under a heavy fire of Musketry, obliging more than treble their numbers to fly in all directions, leaving behind, about thirty men and fifty stand of Arms.
The guns which were twenty four pounders, were then thrown over the cliff, the Magazines etc, destroyed, and the two remaining gun vessels brought off.
The zeal and gallantry of all the officers and crew in this effort could not have been exceeded, but I cannot find words to express my admiration of the manner in which Lieutenant Travers commanded, and headed the boats crews and landing party setting 'a most noble example of intrepidity to the officers and men under him.

Swing to buffling winds the ship was unavoidably exposed to raking fire going in, but the foxlapsull yard shot away, is the only damage of any consequence. I have to regret the loss of 1 Marine killed, and two are wounded.
I have the honour to be etc etc from Henry Duncan Captain. (Sic)
Return of men belonging to HMS IMPERIEUSE, killed and wounded in an attack upon the enemy's fort and gunboats at Possitana on Friday 11th October 1811.
THOMAS NORMAN. Private Marine killed.
OWEN JONES slightly wounded.
DAVID JONES slightly wounded.
Also from Henry Duncan Captain.

1812. The beginning of the three year war in America.

1812. Sunday 2nd February. Southampton captured Haytian privateer Amethyste.

1812. Thursday 13th February. Apollo took French frigate Merinos.

1812. Saturday 22nd February. Victorious and Weasel captured Rivoli and Mercure.

1812. Friday 27th March. Rosario and Griffon destroyed 5 French brigs off Dieppe.

1812. Saturday 4th April. Capture of a French xebec by the Maidstone's boats.

1812. Thursday 16th April. Capture of 9 coasting vessels by the Pilot and boats.

1812. Wednesday 29th April. Boats of Leviathan and Undaunted captured 5 vessels.

1812. Wednesday 29th April. Destruction of 21 of a French convoy off the Rhone.

1812. Monday 4th May. Re-capture of Apelles, British Brig-sloop, near Etaples.

1812. Saturday 9th May. Batteries at Languelia carried, and 18 vessels destroyed.

1812. Thursday 14th May. Thames and Pilot at Port Sapri.

1812. Friday 22nd May. Northumberland and Growler destroyed 2 French frigates.

1812. Monday 25th - 26th May. Hyacinth, Termagant, and Basilisk at Almunecar.

1812. Thursday 28th May. Menelaus engaged Pauline and Ecureuil.

1812. Friday 29th May. Hyacinth and consorts captured Brave and Napoleon.

1812. May. Leviathan and consorts at Languelia and Alassio.

1812. Thursday 4th June. Boats of Medusa cut out and destroyed Dorade.

1812. Thursday 11th June. Swallow engaged Renard and Gotland.

1812. Friday 19th June. Boats of Briscis captured Urania.

1812. Saturday 20th June - 8th July. Capture of Fort Leguertis and destruction of batteries.

1812. Monday 1st June. The storming of a battery at Isle Verte, near Ciotat. The Royal Marines were on board HMS Furieuse and HMS Menelaus.

1812. Saturday 27th June. The action at Lunguillia and Allassio.

1812. June  to February 1814. Royal Marines serving in the 1812 War.
With a need to free troops for service in the Peninsula, the Admiralty in 1810 created a battalion of marines and sent them to be a part of the garrison in Lisbon. This was done by combining men from each of the four marine divisions. In 1812, this unit served aboard Admiral Popham's fleet off the North Coast of Spain where they were joined by a second battalion. Together, by being landed here and there, they managed to disrupt coastal traffic and supplies, capture several towns and ports and pin down the northern division of the French Army.
Wishing to pursue the war with America, the two battalions were recalled to England, re-equipped and then sent to the Chesapeake Bay. They arrived in June 1813. With the Navy and several other units, they proceeded to roam at will up and down the bay creating chaos wherever they landed. Both battalions were withdrawn in September and sent to aid in the defense of Canada. By May of 1814, the 2nd was used to augment Commodore Yeo's ships on Lake Ontario and the remainder were merged with the 1st. In July, the 1st was also "disposed for Naval Service".
In 1814, with the demise of Napoleon, Britain decided to send a larger force to America and the Chesapeake. Along with regiments from the Peninsular army, a third battalion of Royal Marines was organized from detachments in Holland and again from the divisions in England and added to the force. Upon reaching the region, this battalion was renumbered the 2nd and was combined with the 21st Foot to create General Ross' 3rd Brigade and served as such at Bladensburg and North Point. A new 3rd battalion was created by Admiral Cockburn by joining three companies of Royal Marines and three companies of Colonial Marines.
In addition to the above battalions, Marines from the ships in the Chesapeake were used as landing forces and raiding parties throughout the campaign. Frequently, provisional battalions were formed from these Marines, and sometimes with sailors, and were used to reinforce the regular units. This occurred at North Point. Another provisional battalion was thrown together for the assault on New Orleans and along with the 85th, managed to breach the American line on the south side of the Mississippi. A company sized detachment operated independently out of Pensacola among the Creek Indians in the southeast.
As can be seen, the Royal Marines served throughout the War of 1812 (and the Napoleonic Wars) in every capacity and every theater of operations. By 1814, there were approximately 30,000 Marines in service throughout the world.(Author Unknown)

1812. June - October. The capture of fort Lequertio and destruction of batteries on the north coast of Spain.

1812. Thursday 2nd July. Boats of Horatio captured a Danish cutter and schooner.

1812. Friday 3rd July. Raven drove 3 French brigs on shore near Flushing.

1812. Saturday 4th July. Boats of Attack captured a French transport galliot.

1812. Monday 6th July. Dictator and consorts destroyed Nayaden, Laaland, and Kiel.

1812. Thursday 16th July. Boats of Osprey and consorts captured Eole.

1812. Tuesday 21st July. Sealark captured Ville de Caen.

1812. Sunday 23rd July. Belvidera engaged President and Congress.

1812. Thursday 30th July. Santander and Castle of Ano taken by Venerable and consorts.

1812. Monday 10th August. Battery carried at Biendom by party from Minstrel.

1812. Tuesday 11th August. Boats of Menelaus at S. Stefano.

1812. Thursday 13th August. Alert captured by U. S. Frigate Essex.

1812. Saturday 15th August. The Leicester Chronical. A young man who had been enticed into the Marines at Oxford, was sworn in on Wednesday night, deserted the following day, and was apprehended a few hours after at Witney, previous to being handcuffed, he asked for some beer, and after drinking it, he cut his throat with a razor he had concealed in his hand, so dreadfully, that he is not expected to live. (Sic)

1812. Sunday 16th August. Attack sunk by Danish vessels off Foreness.

1812. Wednesday 19th August. Guerriere captured by Constitution.

1812. Monday 24th August. The Battle of Bladensburg, saw the use of Congreve rockets by the detachment of Royal Marine Artillery (RMA) that resulted in the rout of the US militiamen.

1812. Friday 28th August. Operations at Cadiz and the heroism of gunner John Collard.

1812. Tuesday 1st September. Capture of Tisiphone at Port Lemo by Bacchante.

1812. Wednesday 3rd September. Boats of Menelaus took St. Juan.

1812. Friday 5th September. Alcnclatts cut out a French ship at Lake Orbitello.

1812. Monday 8th September. Laura captured by Diligent.

1812. Saturday 12th September. By order of the Lords of the Admiralty, a distribution of the Scriptures is immediately to take place in the Royal Navy, as follows: one copy of the New Testament, two Common Prayers, with two Psalters, for every eight men, and one Bible to every two Messes.

1812. Thursday 17th September. Capture of 17 and destruction of 6 gunboats by Eagle.

1812. Friday 18th September. Capture of 8 armed and 18 merchant vessels by Bacchante.

1812. Saturday 26th September. The Leicester Chronical. On the 13th, a shocking occurrence took place at Radstock. Corporal Green, who has been for some time at Bath, with a recruiting party of Marines, went over to the above place, with the avowed purpose of apprehending a deserter, but called on a respectable young woman, of the name of Smith, to renew his addresses, which had formerly been rejected by her parents.
They walked out together in the neighbouring lane when the villain, in a fit of desperation, took out a double-barrelled pistol, the contents of which he discharged at the unfortunate young woman, and with the other shot himself through the head. He died on the spot, but his intended victim survives, and hopes are entertained of her ultimate recovery. A woman, in passing through the lane, heard the man exclaim, "in that case we will both die together".
She had not proceeded above a hundred yards when the reports of a pistol induced her to return and was the first witness at this dreadful scene. (Sic)

1812. Tuesday 29th September. Capture of 4 French vessels at Valencia by Minstrel.

1812. Tuesday 29th September. Attack on Mittau, Riga.

1812. Tuesday 29th September. The attack on Mittau, Riga. Royal Marines of HMS Aboukir and HMS Ranger.

1812. Sunday 18th October. Frolic captured by U.S. sloop Wasp.

1812. Sunday 18th October. Poictiers captured Wasp and re-captured Frolic.

1812. Friday 23rd October. The Naval Chronicle. A Court Martial took place on board the Salvador del Mundo, Hamoaze, for the trial of Lieut. William Gibbons, commanding His Majesty's schooner Alphea, on account of the treatment experienced by one Mrs. Bentley, the wife of a Corporal of Marines, who was, In August last, by Lieut. Gibbons's order, put, and left, on the warping buoy, between the island and the main; and for a breach of the 33d article of war. It appeared that on the 14th of August, Lieut. G. went on board the Alphea, to proceed to sea, and enquired what women were on board. He was told Corporal Bentley's wife; whom he had given positive orders should not come into the ship. Lieut. G. desired a boat to be manned to take her on shore; upon which the woman commenced the most violent abuse of Lieut. G. which induced him to say to the men, " put her no farther than the buoy; put her on the buoy." She was there a quarter of an hour; when a boat from the shore took her off. Lieut. G. on his defence, admitted the fact; he thought no injury could arise to her from it; did not know she was pregnant; the buoy was so large that he and 16 others had stood on it. The Court thought that the treatment experienced by Grace Bentley, pursuant to Lieutenant Gibbons’s orders, was highly improper and reprehensible, but that the said Lieut. Gibbons has not been guilty of a breach of the 33d article of war, The Court did, in consequence, adjudge him to be dismissed the command of His Majesty's schooner Alphea. (Sic)

1812. Sunday 25th October. Macedonian captured by U.S. frigate United States.

1812. Wednesday 16th December. Albacore and consorts engaged Gloire.

1812. Monday 21st December. Destruction of tower of St. Cataldo by Apollo and Weasel.

1812. Sunday 28th December. Java captured by U.S. frigate Constitution.

1812. Monday 29th December. Royalist captured Ruse.

1812. During the War of 1812, Edward Nicolls RM was posted to Spanish Florida as part of an attempt to recruit the local Indians as allies against the United States. General Sir Edward Nicolls, KCB (Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath). (1779 – 5th February 1865). He was of Anglo-Irish officer serving in the Royal Marines. Often referred to as 'Fighting Nicolls', he had a distinguished career, was involved in numerous actions, and often received serious wounds. According to his obituary in the (London) Times, "He was involved in no fewer than 107 actions, in various parts of the world. He had his left leg broken and his right leg severely injured, was shot through the body and right arm, had received a severe sabre cut in the head, was bayoneted in the chest, and had lost the sight of an eye."

For his service, he received medals and honours, and reached the rank of General. Described as an 'impatient and blustering Irishman' by an anonymous detractor, Nicolls was greatly admired for his courage. A similar assessment was made by Lord Bathurst.

Nicolls was born in Coleraine, Ireland, in to a family with a military tradition; his father was surveyor of excise in Coleraine, and his maternal grandfather was a rector. Nicolls spent his life as an intensely devout Ulster Protestant. He had two years of school in Greenwich, but enlisted in the Royal Navy at the age of 11. In 1795, at the age of 16, he received his first commission in the Royal Marines. At 20 he began service with shipborne detachments of Marines. During the Napoleonic Wars and associated conflicts in the Caribbean, Mediterranean, and North Sea, he served as a commander of ships' detachments, and gained his reputation for ferocity and courage.

Upon being posted to Spanish Florida as part of the British attempt to recruit local allies in the fight against the United States. He set up a base at what became known as Negro Fort and recruited Creeks, escaped slaves, and other local residents. As the war ended and after he returned to England in 1815, he attracted controversy by advocating for the Creeks and others who allied themselves with the British. From 1823 to 1828, he was the commandant of Ascension Island in the South Atlantic, which was followed by a posting from 1829 to 1835, as Superintendent of Fernando Po off the coast of Africa. In 1835, Nicolls retired from the Royal Marines with the rank of a Lieutenant Colonel. For his service, Nicolls was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB) among other honours, and was promoted to the rank of full General in his retirement.

1813. Wednesday 6th January. Boats of Bacchante took 5 French gun-brigs.

1813. Wednesday 6th January. Boats of Havannah captured 3 vessels and a gunboat.

1813. Monday 18th January - 3rd February. Augusta and Carzola Islands captured by Apollo and troops.

1813. Saturday 30th January. The Sydney Gazette. The Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty in ordering Home the Detachment of Royal Marines doing Duty at the Derwent for some Years Past, having granted permission for such of them as were inclined to remain in the country and become settlers, 28 of them having availed themselves of this option. His Excellency the Governor and Commander in Chief directs that they shall be disbanded at Hobart Town on 6 March and struck off all military duties from that date, receiving I months' pay in advance from 6 March in consideration of their long and faithful Services and highly meritorious Conduct for 9 years past in this Country.

1813. Tuesday 2nd February. Boats of Kingfisher took 6 vessels at Corfu.

1813. Wednesday 3rd February. The capture of the Island of Agusta.  Royal Marines and Seamen from the HMS Apollo, the 35th Regiment and Artillery.

1813. Sunday 7th February. Amelia engaged Arethuse.

1813. Monday 8th February. Boats of Belvidera and consorts took Lottery.

1813. Sunday 14th February. Boats of Bacchante captured Alcinous.

1813. Monday 15th February. Batteries at Pietra-Nera stormed and carried.

1813. Wednesday 24th February. Peacock sunk by U.S. sloop Hornet.

1813. Thursday 25th February. Linnet taken by French frigate Gloire.

1813. Friday 26th February. Island of Ponza taken by Thames and consorts.

1813. Thursday 4th of March. On the 4th of March 1813, an order in Council established the rates of officers' pensions on the same footing with the army. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1813. Thursday 18th March. Battery at Carri destroyed by boats of Undaunted.

1813. Sunday 21st March. Capture of 2 Danish gunboats by Brevdrageren and Blazer.

1813. Monday 22nd March. Two French vessels taken at Vasto by boats of Havannah.

1813. Friday 26th March. Boats of Havannah captured 10 vessels at Fortore.

1813. Wednesday 31st March. Batteries at Morgion destroyed and 11 vessels captured.

1813. Friday 2nd April. Boats of San Domingo and consorts captured 4 schooners.

1813. Sunday 11th April. Devil's Island taken by Apollo and Cerberus.

1813. Wednesday 14th April. Malero Island captured by Apollo and Cerberus.

1813. Saturday 17th April. Alutine captured Invincible.

1813. Thursday 22nd April. Weasel destroyed 14 French vessels off Boscalina.

1813. Saturday 24th April. Boats of Apollo captured a felucca.

1813. Monday 26th April. Six vessels captured at Goro by Elizabeth and Eagle.

1813. Wednesday 28th April. French Town in Chesapeake taken. Captains Wyburn and Carter with 150 Royal Marines.

1813. Thursday 29th April - 5th May. Boats of Marlborough and consorts in Chesapeake Bay.

1813. April. Boats of Orpheus captured a Danish letter-of-marque.

1813. Sunday 2nd May. Batteries destroyed at Morgion by boats of Repulse and consort.

1813. Tuesday 11th May. Bacchante at Karlebago.

1813. Sunday 16th May. Boats of Berwick and Euryalus at Cavalarie.

1813. Monday 17th May. Boats of Apollo and Cerberus took a vessel near Brindisi.

1813. Thursday 27th May. Boats of Apollo and Cerberus took 3 gunboats at Faro.

1813. May - June. Lyra, Royalist and Sparrow at Castro de Urdeales.

1813. Tuesday 1st June. Shannon captured U.S. frigate Chesapeake.

1813. Sunday 2nd May. Morgion. Captain Ennis and a party of Royal Marines from HMS Undaunted and HMS Volontaire blow up battery and capture six laden vessels.

1813. Tuesday 1st June. HMS Shannon captured U.S. frigiue Chesapeake.

1813. Thursday 3rd June – 8th June. Fort San Felippe De Balaguer. A small but important fort garrisoned by 100 men situated upon an isolated rock in the very gorge of a pass and blocking the only carriage way between Tortoza and Tarragona. Five men of war and two battalions were detailed for the attack. Guns and Mortars were landed from the ships and great difficulty placed in position on the mountain side. Earth for the batteries had to be brought up from below and water was only obtainable from the ships, the landing place being a mile and a half away from the scene of the operation. The surrender of the fortress was due to the fire of a couple of 8 inch mortars worked by Lieutenant H. James RMA. which exploded a magazine. He and his party belonged to the Stromboli bomb vessel. After capture a garrison of Royal Marines under Captain E. Baillie was placed in San Felippe.

1813. Thursday 3rd - 19th June to 28th September. Operations on Lake Ontario.

1813. Tuesday 8th June. Boats of Elizabeth and Eagle defeated troops at Omago.

1813. Saturday 12th June. Boats of Bacchante captured 24 vessels at Abruzza.

1813. Saturday 12th June. Boats of Narcissus took the American schooner Surveyor.

1813. Thursday 17th June. Garrison defeated at Zapano by party from Saracen.

1813. Sunday 20th June. Capture of Dignano by boats of Elizabeth.

1813. Sunday 20th June. Junon engaged 15 gunboats in Hampton Roads.

1813. Tuesday 22nd June. Unsuccessful attack by boats of squadron on Craney Isla.

1813. Wednesday 23rd June. Boats of Castor cut out Fortune off Catalonia.

1813. Friday 25th June. Capture of Hampton by boats of Marlborough and squadron.

1813. Friday 25th June. The battle of Hampton.

1813. Saturday 3rd July. Fiume. The detachment of Royal Marines of HMS Milford took and spiked the guns of a battery, took possession of a fort and hoisted the British colours. On advancing through the town they were much annoyed by the fire of a field piece and by musketry from the windows, but headed by 2nd Lieutenants S. Lloyd and E. Nepean they pushed the French troops, almost 300 strong before them till they came to the square. Here the enemy made a stand but were dispersed by the fire of the cannonades in the ships boats. Nine guns were captured, 90 vessels taken or destroyed, 50 guns disabled and two magazines burnt.

1813. Saturday 3rd July. The Leicester Chronical. The Court Martial held last week at Portsmouth on Lieut DELAP of the Marines, one late of the Java, on charges of having refused to account for a sum of money due to a widow of one of the officers of the Java, who was killed in action, which he had received and was entrusted with, and for the most insolent conduct to General Elliot, of the Marines, commanding at Portsmouth, etc, finished their proceedings on Saturday, and passed the following sentence on him on the parade in the barrack-yard, viz - That he be cashiered, and rendered incapable of ever serving his Majesty in any military or civil capacity what­ever, and his heirs for ever, and that his epaulette and sash should be torn from him by the Drum Major and the breaking of his sword over his head was dispensed with in consequence only of his late good conduct when in action on board the Java.
At 10 o'clock on Saturday morning, sentence was carried into execution. All the officers and men at quarters having been ordered under arms, Lieut Delap was brought from his room, in-custody of the officer on guard, and placed in the centre of a hollow square, which the troops had formed. The sentence was then read by the Judge Advocate (Lieut and Adjutant PATTEN) and the Drum Major cut the epaulette from off his shoulder, and his sash from off his body, General WINTER (the President) then addressed the Corps in an impressive manner, and with the feelings worthy of the British Soldier pointed out the evils of insubordination, and adverted to the case they had just witnessed, as a proof that no rank was above the reach of the law. He informed Mr Delap that it was his good conduct in the action between the Java and Constitution that alone averted an additionally disgraceful circumstance that would have been included in the sentence, that of having his sword broke over his head.
Mr Delap was then led out of the Barracks by a guard.

1813. Wednesday 7th July. Destruction of Farasina by Eagle and landing party.

1813. Saturday 10th July - 8th Sept. Reduction of St. Sebastian by Graham.

1813. Sunday 11th July. Conflict and consorts took Ocracoke and Portsmouth.

1813. Sunday 11th July. Contest and Mohawk captured U.S. schooner Asp.

1813. Monday 19th July. Bordighero.

1813. July 29. Martin aground, attacked by American gunboats.

1813. Monday 2nd August. The Royal Marines from HMS Eagle and HMS Bacchante under Lieutenants C. Holmes, W. Haig and S. Lloyd took part in the capture of 14 merchantmen and 10 gunboats lying in the Rovigno harbour, protected by 100 troops and 2 field guns. The Royal Marines charged the guns with the bayonet and captured and destroyed them.

1813. Wednesday 4th August. Battery at Ragosniza destroyed by Milford and Weasel.

1813. Thursday 5th August. Dominica taken by the privateer Decalur.

1813. Friday 13th August. Pelican captured U.S. brig Argus.

1813. Wednesday 18th August. Capture of Cassis by Undaunted, squadron, and boats.

1813. Sunday 5th September. Boxer captured by U.S. brig Enterprise.

1813. Sunday 5th September. Destruction of batteries and capture of ships at d'Anzo.

1813. Thursday 9th September. Alphea engaged Renard but blew up with all hands.

1813. Friday 10th September. Detroit and 5 consorts captured by Perry on Lake Erie.

1813. Thursday 16th September. Boats of Swallow took Guerriere.

1813. Tuesday 5th October. A convoy was destroyed and Royal Marines stormed the battery at Port D’ango.

1813. Tuesday 5th – 29th October. A detachment of Royal Marines along with 2 guns blockaded and capture of Trieste.

1813. Saturday 9th October. Thunder captured the French lugger Neptune.

1813. Tuesday 12th October. St. George and Cattard taken by Bacchante and Saracen.

1813. Wednesday 13th October. Telegraph destroyed Flibustier.

1813. Thursday 14th October. Boats from HMS Furieuse cut out a convoy while the Royal Marines stormed the battery at Marinello (near Citcita Veechia). Capturing the battery and 16 vessels.

1813. Saturday 16th, 17th and 18th October. A detachment of the Royal Marine Artillery was involved in the battle of Leipzig.

1813. Wednesday 20th October. Achates engaged Trave.

1813. Saturday 23rd October. Andromache captured Trave.

1813. Monday 1st November. Snap captured the French lugger Lion.

1813. Friday 5th November. Scipion and consorts engaged the French off Cape Sepet.

1813. Monday 8th November. Boats of Revenge took a French privateer at Palamos.

1813. Tuesday 9th November. The storming of the batteries at Port Nouvelle by Undaunted and Guadeloupe.

1813. Friday 26th November. Boats of Swiftsure took Charlemagne.

1813. Monday 29th November. The Hague.

1813. Tuesday 30th November. Desiree and gun-vessels attacked batteries at Cuxhaven.

1813. Saturday 11th – 15th December. Leghorn.

1813. December. Enryalus took a French 22-gun store ship.

1813. December. Alemene captured a French schooner laden with troops.

1814. Tuesday 4th January. Operations in South Beveland.

1814. Wednesday 5th January. Fortress of Gluckstadt captured by a British squadron.

1814. Wednesday 5th January. Fortress of Cattaro taken by Bacchante and Saracen.

1814. Thursday 6th January. Tagus and Niger took the French frigate Ceres.

1814. Saturday 15th January. Boat of Castor took Heureux.

1814. Sunday 16th - 20th January. Venerable and Cyane took Iphigenie and Alemene.

1814. Tuesday 18th January. Severn engaged Etoile and Sultane.

1814. Sunday 23rd January. Astrea and Creole engaged Etoile and Sultane.

1814. Friday 28th January. Surrender of Ragusa to Bacchante, Saracen and troops.

1814. January. The 3rd Royal Marine Battalion was formed at Portsmouth from detachments based in portsmouth, and by Marines detachments withdrawn from serving in the Netherlands. It consisted of 1 Major, 4 Captains, 21 Lieutenants, 1 Adjutant, 1 Quartermaster, and 10 Companies of 100 men each. Also attached was one company of Royal Marine Artillery.

1814. Wednesday 2nd February. Majestic took Terpsichore.

1814. Sunday 13th February. Boyne and Caledonia engaged Romulus and Adrienne.

1814. Sunday 13th February. Island of Paxo surrendered to Apollo and troops.

1814. Monday 14th February. Picton captured by U.S. frigate Constitution.

1814. Wednesday 23rd February. Epervier took U.S. privateer brig Alfred.

1814. Friday 25th February. Eurotas captured Clorinde.

1814. Monday 7th March. U.S. privateer Mars destroyed at Sandy Hook.

1814. Friday 12th March. Primrose engaged by mistake a British brig Packet.

1814. Sunday 13th March. Cole Mill in Canada.

1814. Friday 25th March. Royal Marines of HMS Edinburgh and HMS Swallow land and capture the castle of Lerici (near Spain).

1814. Saturday 26th March. Hebrus and Sparrow engaged Etoile and Sultane.

1814. Saturday 26th March. Hannibal captured Sultane.

1814. Sunday 27th March. Hebrus captured Etoile.

1814. Monday 28th March. Phoebe and Cherub took Essex and Essex Junior.

1814. Saturday 2nd April. Boats of Porcupine captured 12 and destroyed 4 vessels.

1814. Thursday 7th April. Raid on the Connecticut River at the Town of Essex. A British raiding force of 136 Marines and sailors rowed six heavily armed boats from four British warships anchored in Long Island Sound (HMS Hogue, HMS Endymion, HMS Maidstone and HMS Borer), six miles up the Connecticut River. They had come under the command of Captain Richard Coote (Coot) to burn the privateers anchored in port towns along the river. On the way up the river, the Marines landed to secure the old fort at Saybrook to prevent being trapped on their return trip, they found it to be unmanned. The boats were armed with swivel guns loaded with grapeshot, the officers armed with swords and pistols, the Marines with Brown Bess muskets, and the sailors with torches and axes.

1814. Friday 8th April. The British raiding force arrived in Essex then known as Pettipaug at 3:30am. At the landing site a handful of local militia fired out into the darkness with muskets and one four pound cannon. The British replied with a massive volley from the Marine’s muskets and the guns mounted in the ship’s boats. Realising further resistance was futile, the small, disorganised militia fell back into the darkness. The Marines secured the village while the seamen set about burning all of the ships at the wharves and on the stocks being built, as well as those moored the harbour.

The British informed the villagers that they had come to destroy shipping, not their homes. Reportedly the civilians were told that as long as they did not molest the British, the town would not be put to the torch. There was no formal capitulation but it was the best deal that the people of Pettipaug were going to get that night.

However, there was resistance and riders were sent to New London to seek assistance from the troops at Fort Trumbull as well Commodore Stephan Decatur whose squadron was blockaded in the Thames River. Meanwhile several men and boys attempted to extinguish burning ships and even hide some of them up the coves, although their attempts were unsuccessful.

The British searched houses for arms and destroyed or commandeered ship rigging materials from waterfront warehouses and destroyed a large quantity of West Indies Rum.

By 10am the British force had torched 27 vessels. They began an orderly departure with their ship’s boats and two large American privateers, the brig Anaconda and the schooner Eagle. About a mile south of the village the brig went aground in the river where the British were subject to sporadic gunfire from shore.

They transferred everything from the grounded vessel and burned it. Coote decided to anchor the schooner and wait until nightfall to head further down the river where militia from Killingworth and Lyme were gathering at the narrows in the river.

At this point the Americans sent a boat out under a white flag to serve the British with a surrender ultimatum. Captain Coote dismissed it stating, “We hold your power to detain us at defiance.”

By late afternoon soldiers, sailors, Marines and additional militia and volunteers were arriving from New London. There were now several hundred armed Americans and a number of artillery pieces on each side of the river. These forces included two American Generals and two US Navy Captains.

The trap was set, but when the Americans realised the British were not going to come down the river until it was dark, they understood there was a real chance of missing them in the blackness of the overcast night. They raced to get at cannon into position on Ayres Point to hit them where they were anchored in the river.

At dusk, as the British set fire to the remaining privateer and were transferring their men back into the boats, they were hit by an American six pound cannon under command of Lieutenant Bull, which had arrived just as the sun began to set. The American crew fired off six rounds as fast they could reload. Two Royal Marines were killed and a sailor was wounded, but the cloak of darkness now masked their movements.

Aided by the strong flow of the river they headed down river in their boats, running a gauntlet of small arms and cannon fire from both banks. Despite the effort of upwards of 600 Americans to stop them, the British reached their ships at 10pm reportedly letting out three cheers after they passed the fort in Saybrook from which ineffectual parting shots were fired.

Compounding the loss of the 27 ships and the failure to capture the British on the way out was the fact that an American had helped guide the British during the raid. The traitor, nicknamed Torpedo Jack by the British, was paid $2,000 for his efforts, a staggering sum at that time.

By the time the raid was over they had burned 27 ships, including six newly built privateers. It was the largest single maritime loss of the war.

1814. Wednesday 20th Apil. Orpheus and Shelburne captured U.S. sloop Frolic.

1814. Friday 29th April. Epervier taken by U.S. sloop Peacock.

1814. April. Batteries destroyed on the Gironde by Belle Poule.

1814. Wednesday 13th – 17th April. Co-operating with the Anglo Italian Army in its attack on Genoa. The Royal Marines of the British squadron were embarked in to boats and ready to land when and if required. Later while the troops were engaged with the enemy, and the guns in the shore batteries. This enabled the Royal Marines and seamen to storm them with little loss, and to turn their guns against the town.

1814. April. Lord Melville presided at the Board of Admiralty, when general Barclay, lieutenant-generals Elliott and Bright, with major-general Burn, were allowed to retire; majorgenerals Strickland, Winter, Lewis, and Williams succeedingto the command of the four divisions, while major-general Bell was appointed commandant in London. In September 5 lieutenant-colonels, 6 majors, with some captains and subalterns, were also allowed to retire, but none of the vacancies caused by these retirements were filled up; and although every other branch of his Majesty's service obtained considerable promotion, there was a total cessation of such reward extended to the marines for a period of six years. The consequences of this injustice has been most detrimental to the establishment, excluding many officers from the benefits of succeeding brevets, who now remain to be provided for. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1814. Tuesday 3rd May. Oswego.

1814. Friday 6th May. Capture of batteries and consorts at Oswego by the British squadron.

1814. Wednesday 25th May. Boats of Elizabeth took Aigle off Corfu.

1814. Monday 30th May. Party from Montreal and Niagara defeated at Sandy Creek.

1814. Wednesday 1st June - 4th July. Operations in the River Patuxent.

1814. Tuesday 14th June. Superb and Nimrod destroyed American vessels at Wareham.

1814. Tuesday 28th June. Reindeer taken by U.S. sloop Wasp.

1814. Tuesday 12th July. Landrail taken by U.S. privateer Syren.

1814. July. Ballahou taken by U. S. privateer Perry.

1814. Saturday 16th July. The British fleet arrived in Chesapeake Bay.

1814. Tuesday 19th July. The British occupied Leonardtown.

1814. Tuesday 19th July - 25th August. Operations in the Potomac River and capture of Washington.

1814. Wednesday 20th July. The British fought on the Nominy River.

1814. Saturday 23rd July. The British fought on the St Clements River.

1814. Tuesday 26th July. The British fought at Machodic Creek.

1814. Saturday 30th July. The British fought at Chaptico.

1814. Wednesday 3rd August. The British fought on the Yocomico River at Kinsale.

1814. Sunday 7th August. The British fought on the Cann River.

1814. Friday 12th August. Boats of Cherwell and Netley took Somers and Ohio.

1814. Monday 15th August. On the 15th of August the half-pay was increased, which equalized it with officers of the same rank in the line. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1814. Wednesday 17th August - 9th September. Capture of Fort Washington and Alexandria.

1814. Wednesday 24th August. The battle of Bladensburg.

1814. Wednesday 24th August. The sacking and burning of Washington.

1814. At Pensacola Captain Edward Nicolls RM issued an order of the day for the 'First Colonial Battalion of the Royal Corps of Marines'. At the same time, Nicolls issued a widely disseminated proclamation to the people of Louisiana, urging them to join forces with British and Indian Allies against the American government. Both proclamations were reproduced in Niles Register. These were a ruse as to the real strength of the British. The 'numerous British and Spanish squadron of ships and vessels of war' comprising of 3 cannons and 12 Royal Marine gunners, whilst the 'Battalion' was a company strength group of 100 Royal Marines infantry, all of whom were detached from major George Lewis's battalion. The numbers of Corps of Colonial Marines and Redstick Creeks are difficult to ascertain, although Nicolls did arrive in Florida with 300 British uniforms and 1000 muskets. Manrique cooperated with Nickolls, allowing him to train and drill Creek refugees.

Nicolls is also mentioned in attempts to recruit Jean Lafitte to the British cause. Nicolls participated in an unsuccessful land and naval attack on Fort Bowyer on 15th September. The taking of Pensacola in November by an American force under Andrew Jackson forced Nicolls to retreat to the Apalachicola River with freed slaves from Pensacola. There, Nicolls regrouped at Prospect Bluff, and rallied Indians and refugee ex-slaves living free in Florida, recruiting the latter into his detached unit of the Corps of Colonial Marines.

Later Captain Nicolls joined General Pakenham's force, accompanied by less than 100 Seminole, Creek & Choctaw warriors. At the Battle of New Orleans on 8 January 1815, Nicolls was attached with some of his men to the brigade commanded by Colonel William Thornton of the 85th Regiment of Foot (Bucks Volunteers). Nicolls was the senior-ranking officer of the Royal Marines present at the battle. Vice Admiral Alexander Cochrane forbade Nicolls to personally take part in the fighting, fearing that mishap to Nicolls might deprive the British of their most competent officer serving with the Redstick Creeks and Seminoles. The actual battlefield command of the 100 Royal Marines brigaded with Thornton's 85th Foot went to a less senior officer, Major Thomas Benjamin Adair, commanding officer of the Marine detachment on HMS Vengeur. Nicolls embarked HMS Erebus on 12 January at Cat Island Roads, and disembarked at Appalachicola on Tuseday 25th January, accompanied by several Creek warriors and a number of Royal Marine reinforcements.

The start of 1815 was to see an offensive in the south, with Royal Marine battalions to advance westward into Georgia, and to be joined by Nicolls and his forces from the Gulf Coast. These plans were overtaken by events, as peace was declared. Consequentially, with the offensive cancelled, Nicolls and his men returned to Prospect Bluff.

1814. Tuesday 30th August. Party from Menelaus engaged ashore in Chesapeake Bay.

1814. August. Nancy destroyed by Tigress and Scorpion on Lake Huron.

1814. Thursday 1st September. Castine captured by a British squadron.

1814. Thursday 1st September. Avon sunk by U.S. sloop Wasp.

1814. Saturday 3rd September. American frigate Adams and 10 vessels destroyed.

1814. Sunday 3rd September. The Royal Marines stormed Hampten, USS Adams burnt and vessels destroyed at Bangor.

1814. Sunday 3rd September. Boats of Nancy captured U.S. schooner Tigress.

1814. Wednesday 6th September. Party from Nancy captured Scorpion.

1814. Sunday 10th - 14th Sept. Attack on Baltimore by a British squadron.

1814. monday 11th September. Confiance and 3 consorts taken by Macdonough.

1814. Monday 12th September. The fight before Baltimore.

1814. Monday 12th-15th September. The Battle of Baltimore. The Royal Marine Artillerymen served aboard HMS Erebus.

1814. Thursday 15th September. Hermes lost at unsuccessful attack on Fort Bowyer.

1814. Monday 26th September. Boats of Plantagenet and Rota repulsed by General Armstrong.

1814. Monday 3rd - 4th October. Boats and landing parties in the Coan River.

1814. Sunday 9th October. Boats of Endymion unsuccessfully attacked Neufchatel.

1814. October. Henry Noble Shipton (27th June 1797 – 5th December 1821) was a British junior officer who served in the Royal Marines and the Army. He is notable as being the sole Royal Marine to have fought at the Battle of Waterloo.
In October 1814, he was sent with sixteen other officers as a draft of reinforcements to North America. He embarked Statira with 10 other officers and 38 other ranks, and was disembarked in Louisiana on 29th December. It was atypical for Royal Marines to serve on land as infantry; most Royal Marines were ship-borne. He, however, was present with the 4th Foot at the Battle of New Orleans, and at the Second Battle of Fort Bowyer in February 1815.
He embarked Tonnant, and returned to Europe in May 1815, as did the 1st battalion of the 4th Foot.
He had a recommendation of commission into the army by General John Lambert, and therefore he tendered his resignation to the Royal Marines. The path of advancement in the Royal Navy was to have high-ranking sponsors. As well as striking up a good rapport with the officers of the 4th, he also gained General Lambert as a sponsor. Given that a lengthy land war seemed imminent (rather than a 100-day campaign), it made perfect sense from a career point of view to resign his commission as a Second Lieutenant, and to become an Ensign in the army.
Immediately upon Shipton's return to the UK from the United States in 1815 he had submitted a letter resigning his commission in the Royal Marines. He was anticipating being commissioned in the Army having obtained "a strong endorsement" from Major-General Lambert. When the 4th Foot embarked for the Netherlands in early June 1815 Shipton accompanied that regiment as a gentleman Volunteer. He fought at Waterloo as a Volunteer; he was neither a Royal Marine or an Ensign. Shipton's commission as an Ensign in the 4th Foot is dated 3 August 1815. He was appointed in place of Ensign Blagrave who had been promoted to Lieutenant on the same day. Despite Shipton's medal being issued to him with the rank of Ensign on the rim he was still only a Volunteer on 18 June 1815. In the National Archives in London there is correspondence dated 27th June 1815 from Shipton's father to the Military Secretary pleading for his son to be granted a commission in the Army. Shipton's father was fearful that in any "speedy peace" his son "would be thrown upon the world without half-pay either from the Army or Marines...". Included in this correspondence is a letter from the Admiralty Office dated 31st May 1815 to the Military Secretary which states "that no objection exists in this Department to the appointment of 2nd Lieut Henry Noble Shipton to a Regiment of the Line, their Lordships being pleased to accept his resignation of his Commission in the Royal Marine Corps". This correspondence is held in WO 31/425 (Commander in Chief's Memoranda).

1814. Tuesday 13th - 14th December. The capture of an American flotilla on Lake Borgne, five U.S. gun-boats and a sloop.

1814. Raids on the American Coast.

1814. At the reduction of the corps in 1814, the non-commissioned officers and privates loudly expressed their disappointment in not being allowed a pension for length of service, on the same footing with their brother-soldiers in the line, and in compliance with the Admiralty-order of 5th of July, 1814, (Appendix 13,) the men were desired by their commanding-officer "on no consideration to trouble the lords of the Admiralty respecting pensions, unless absolutely worn out in the service, so as to be rendered incapable of labour." This unjust determination of the Board gave rise to a letter entitled, The Royal Marine to the Friends of his Country and its brave Defenders, which, on being circulated in the barracks at Chatham, tended to increase the discontent that prevailed; but shortly afterwards the claims of those gallant and loyal veterans obtained due consideration, and pensions were awarded them. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1814. Three additional Marine Battalions (numbered 1-3) were raised from among the Royal Marines specifically for action in Portugal, Northern Spain, the Invasion of France, the Netherlands, North America and the Caribbean. However they were later disbanded in 1815.

1814 - 1816. The Royal Marines were reduced to a peacetime establishment set at eighty companies (four of artillery) of 6,222 men.  This reduction, of course, did not last and its numbers again increased and you see the Royal Marines once again called upon to serve around the globe both at sea and on land.

1815. Thursday 2th January. The capture of Point a Pitre.

1815. Sunday 8th January. The British attacked New Orleans.

1815. Friday 13th - 14th January. Capture of St. Mary's, Georgia, by the British.

1815. Sunday 15th January. Endymion captured U.S. frigate President.

1815. January - March. The British mount many raids on Florida Coast.

1815. Friday 20th February. Cyane and Levant captured by U.S. frigate Constitution.

1815. Sunday 22nd February. Engagement between British boats and U.S. troops in St. Mary's River.

1815. Thursday 26th February. St. Lawrence taken by U.S. privateer Chasseur.

1815. Wednesday 15th March. A U.S. Army aide-de-camp named Walter Bourke communicated to Major General Thomas Pinckney that conditions were difficult on the Georgia frontier despite efforts of Brigadier General John Floyd of the Georgia militia to reinforce American defences, and the efforts of U.S. Truce Commissioners T. M. Newell and Thomas Spalding on the Georgia coast to negotiate the return of slaves who had enlisted in, or sought asylum with, the Corps of Colonial Marines still at Cumberland Island under the command of Rear Admiral George Cockburn. Cockburn was not inclined to voluntarily hand over British military personnel who risked being returned to slavery by the Americans. Cockburn also professed difficulty in communicating news of the Treaty of Ghent to Nicolls and his forces. There was a whiff of panic in St. Marys and Savannah at this time.

Edward Nicolls RM contributed to diplomatic tensions between the United Kingdom and the United States over slavery-related issues arising from Jackson's Treaty with the Creeks, the Treaty of Ghent, and Nicolls's attempts to represent the interests of the Native Americans and blacks who had taken up arms on the British side. Writing from HMS Royal Oak, off Mobile Bay, on Wednesday 15th March 1815, Rear Admiral Pulteney Malcolm, Cochrane's subordinate commander of the Mobile Squadron, assured Don Mateo Gonzalez Manrique, the Governor at Pensacola, that Post-Captain Robert Cavendish Spencer of HMS Carron, (a son of George Spencer, 2nd Earl Spencer), had been detailed to conduct a strict enquiry into the conduct of Nicolls and Captain Woodbine, respecting the losses in property to Spanish inhabitants of Florida. Malcolm believed that in cases where former slaves could not be persuaded to return to their owners, the British government would undertake to remunerate the owners.

Prior to leaving British Post for Great Britain, Nicolls engaged in a heated exchange of letters with U.S. Indian Agent Benjamin Hawkins. Hawkins accused Nicolls of being overzealous and of overstepping his authority in his personal defence of Redstick Creeks, Seminoles, and their Marron Creole or Black Allies, who some Americans in authority viewed as nothing more than runaway slaves and lost or unclaimed property.

1815. Saturday 22nd April. Nicolls received orders to withdraw his troops from the fort. The Royal Marine detachment embarked HMS Cydnus on, and were duly returned to Ireland Island in Bermuda, arriving on Tuesday 13th June 1815, to re-join the 3rd Battalion as a supernumerary company. Nicolls left in the summer of 1815 with the Redstick Creek Prophet, Josiah Francis (or Hillis Hadjo, the Native American Indian spiritual and political leader known for his role in the Battle of Holy Ground), and an Anglo-Creek-Seminole treaty of Nicolls' own initiative. Nicolls, Woodbine, and a Redstick Creek leader, probably Francis, arrived at Amelia Island, in East Florida on Wednesday 7th June 1815, where rumours circulated that the officers were seeking to either obtain British possession of Florida from Spain, or at least to arm and supply the Florida factions resisting American territorial expansion. In leaving West Florida, according to the U. S. Indian Agent Hawkins, Nicolls had left local forces with the arms and means to resist advancing American encroachments which were leading up to Andrew Jackson's First Seminole War. Nicolls embarked the brig HMS Forward at Amelia Island on Thursday 29th June 'for passage to England', and disembarked at Portsmouth on Wednesday 13th September. In England, Nicolls failed to obtain official support for the Creeks, and Josiah Francis failed to receive official recognition for his credentials as the Redstick Creek emissary from the Foreign Office, although he did receive honorary recognition as a former Colonel of the British Army in Florida as well as publicized encounters with British notables, before returning to West Florida in 1816. Nicolls himself, however, was retained on full pay status in the duties of a Captain of Royal Marines with the brevet rank of Major.

1815. Thursday 23rd March. Penguin taken by U.S. ship Hornet.

1815. Sunday 30th April. Rivoli captured Melpomene off Ischia.

1815. Sunday 21st May. Naples. The Royal Marines landed 500 strong to occupy Forts St. Elmo and D’Uovo upon its surrender by the French.

1815. Saturday 17th June. Pilot engaged Legere off Cape Corse.

1815. Sunday 18th July. French convoy captured by Ferret, Fly and consort.

1815. Wednesday 5th July. The pay of Adjutants was increased. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1815. Friday 14th July. 500 Marines landed under Brevet Major H. Cox, co-operated with the Army under Sir Hudson Lowe in the occupation of Marseilles.

1815. Saturday 15th July. Marine Private John Sudbury record Napoleon's boarding of HMS Bellaraphon, and a claim that a young Napoleon applied for a commission in the British Marines.

1815. Sunday 18th July. French convoy captured by Ferret, Fly and consorts.

1815. Tuesday 18th – 19th July. The French convoy cut out at Corigeou. On the 5th July  the frigates HMS Rhin, HMS Menelaus and HMS Havannah, with the Fly and Ferret brigs, and the schooner Sealark chased a French convoy into the Bay of Corigeou, about eighteen miles from Brest. The boats left the squadron at 10pm on the 18th, and came to a grapnel under a range of rocks about a quarter of a mile from shore. Here they lay till the moon went down, finally effecting a landing, undiscovered, at 2-45am on the 19th. The Marines of HMS Menelaus, 45 rank and file, formed the advance guard under Lieutenant A, Burton RH, the main body consisting of 120 Marines under Lieutenants Bunce and Hurdle, and 80 seamen, was commanded by Captain Malcolm RN of HMS Rhin. Having stormed the two batteries which protected the anchorage, the brigs were able to enter and bring out the convoy. This little affair is of some interest as being the last of the numerous cutting out expeditions in which the Marines played such an important part during the long war with France.

1815. Saturday 24th July. Reduction of Gaeta by Malta and Berwick.

1815. Napoleon was exiled to St Helena Island of Ascension.

When St. Helena became the prison of Napoleon, the occupation of Ascension necessarily followed; and Sir George Cockburn, the commander-in-chief on the station, immediately sent an officer with a number of men under his command to hold the island. But the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty were not long in forwarding a different establishment, and a detachment of Marines was sent from England, under Major Campbell, to form the garrison. It was in October 1823 that Major Nicolls succeeded to the command of the Island of Ascension, which was then a mere rock overrun by immense rats, and incapable of producing any vegetation; having scarcely sufficient water for its small garrison, and the road from the barracks to the spring which furnished the supply almost impassable for their water cart. But by the unremitted exertions of the Marines on the island, convenient roads were made, and water-tanks built, affording not only an ample supply for the garrison, but for the ships of the African squadron, and numerous merchant vessels that came to the island in distress. Vegetables were cultivated with so much success, that a plentiful supply was obtained by our cruisers, and previous to the recall of Major Nicolls from his command in 1828, (on his promotion to the rank of Major in the Corps,) he had so improved the cultivation of the island, that there were 800 head of cattle of his own rearing, consisting of cows, oxen, sheep, goats, and swine, besides about 500 that had been slaughtered.

The ingenuity and perseverance of the Marines who served on the Island of Ascension, and particularly those who were its earliest inhabitants, convey to the admiring and astonished visitor of the colony a flattering impression of the discipline and internal economy of the Corps.

Captain William Bate succeeded Major Nicolls, and this officer, after years of exertion, vexation, and difficulty, died on the island. Captain Tinklar was the next commandant, and this zealous officer soon became a victim to his anxious desire to promote the welfare of the service. Captain Bennett was the next appointed, but the period of that officer's command was even briefer than his predecessor, and he died in a still more sudden manner.

The death of three commandants within so short a period leads us to infer, that their removal was not entirely attributable to the malignity of the climate, for we do not find its fatal influence extending to the subordinate ranks, but we believe that the duties of the commanding officers were of a most tantalising character, involving contradictions, vexations, and anomalies that but few constitutions could long resist in such a climate as that of Ascension. The last officer of Marines in command at this seemingly fatal colony was Captain R. P. Dwyer, and he all but shared the fate of his predecessors, for in little more than two years from his appointment, he was, through the excitement and vexations inseparable from his duties, seized with such severe illness, that, as the only chance of saving his life, he was sent to England by the first ship that touched at the island. But some time previous to his illness Captain Dwyer had solicited permission to resign his command, under the persuasion that no exertions, no line of conduct however upright and honourable, could guarantee him from annoyances which could not be overcome.

Thus ended the command which had been so long held by officers of the Royal Marines on the Island of Ascension. That gloomy cinder in the distant ocean, which has been forced into its actual state of usefulness and importance by the perseverance, the skill, and the zeal of the Marines. This fact so forcibly struck the Prince de Joinville when he visited the island in the early part of 1843, that his Royal Highness observed to Captain Dwyer, "The Marines deserve great credit. They have performed wonders here, for out of nothing, less than nothing, you have created a great deal, a very useful little colony.”

1815. The Royal Marines once more went on a war footing. Officers just recently placed upon half-pay were brought back on full pay. The establishment was to be raised to two-thirds of its former war strength. The naval squadrons were reinforced by marine forces including detachments of the Royal Marine Artillery. One RMA company served in Wellington’s army where it was stationed at Ostend.  Commanded by Captain Charles Burton, it consisted of 124 officers and men. Its original armament was to be of four 6 pounders and two 5½ inch howitzers. These guns were left behind when the company sailed for Ostend in the first week of June. It remained in garrison at Ostend and the company was recalled home at the end of September.
For their services the Royal Marines received medal awards as diverse as the Portuguese Cayenne Medal 1809 awarded to the Marines of HMS Confiance and the Spanish Medals for Bagur and Palamos 1810. They were also eligible for the Naval General Service Medal (awarded in 1849) with clasps for specific fleet and ship-to-ship actions and as well as for boat service (e. g. cutting out excursions by using a ship's boats). Royal Marines were also eligible for the Army General Service Medal (awarded 1848) with clasps for Martinique 1809, Guadeloupe 1810 and Java 1811.

1816. Saturday 6th July. The pay of Adjutants was increased.

1816. Sunday 27th August The bombardment of Algiersby Lord Exmouth. The following is taken from the MS. Journal of General F.W. Whinyates R.E. published in the R.E. Journal of 1th February 1881; ”On the 9th August, arrived at Gibraltar after 13 days passage. Whilst at Gibraltar the Marines of the fleet, about 100, were formed into two Battalion, to be commanded by Majors Vallack and Collins of the Royal Marines. It was intended that the company of Royal Sappers and Marines should land with them at Algiers, and each Sapper and Miner was to carry two hand Grenades and a piece of slow match in his haver sack, besides his musket and ammunition.

1816. August. Due to the large number of RGA siege batteries being formed for service in France there was a shortage of qualified officers to command these siege batteries, therefore the War Office requested that Royal Marine Artillery officers be transferred to the Royal Garrison Artillery for service as officers commanding siege batteries. One of these was Captain Hubert Richard, RMA who after almost 18 years of service as an officer was demobilised by the RMA on 21st August 1916 and accepted a commission as Temporary Captain in the Royal Garrison Artillery on the same day. Two months later he went to France in command of 199th Siege Battery, RGA. He was later promoted Major, RGA and mentioned in despatches. Major Hubert Richard Twiss, Royal Marine Artillery/Royal Garrison Artillery.
1914 - 1915 Star (Captain, R.M.A.)
British War Medal (Major)
WW1 Victory Medal with M. I. D. Emblem (Major)
Twiss was born at Long Ditton, Surrey on 21st December 1880, the son of Arthur Edward Twiss, a clerk in the Secretary’s Office, General Post Office, London and Agnes Forbes Twiss (née Willis). He was educated at Felsted School from September 1895 to July 1898 where he was a Prefect and played on the Football XI in 1897. On 1st September 1898 he was commissioned as a 2nd Lieutenant in the Royal Marine Artillery. He was on leave from 1st September 1898 to 29th September 1898 and then was a student at the Royal Naval College from 30th September 1898 until 15th August 1900, being promoted to Lieutenant on 1st July 1899. From 16th August 1900 to 20th January1902 he served at the Headquarters, Royal Marine Artillery.
He served in the Channel on H. M. S. “Magnificent” from 21st January 1902 until 21st January 1903 and then returned to service with the Royal Marine Artillery Division until 10th April 1903. From 11th April 1903 to 12th February 1904 he served on H. M. S. “Repulse” and then with the Royal Marine Artillery Division until being posted to H. M. S. “Revenge” in home waters from 18th May 1904 to 31st August 1905. Up until this point Twiss had received very good reports that stated: “a promising young officer of good physique”; “Very good tact with men. Recommended for advancement;” and “able and zealous, good tempered and tactful.”
Twiss served with the Royal Marine Artillery Division from 1st September 1905 to 18th April 1906 and then served on H. M. S. “Caesar” from 19th May 1906 until 25th May 1907. From 26th May 1907 to 15th July 1907 he was posted to the Royal Marine Artillery Division and then served on H. M. S. “Good Hope” from 16th July 1907 to 17th August 1909. He was promoted to Captain, Royal Marine Artillery on 10th December 1909 and served with the Royal Marine Artillery Division from 18th August 1909 to 26th September 1910. During this period his reports began to hint at some problems with his financial obligations: “capable and has good judgment but is not entirely reliable for the command of a detachment afloat owing to his lack of self-control and of his sense of pecuniary obligations;” “good ability and judgment but lacks zeal and is careless with his pecuniary obligations;” “capable officer but careless in money matters.” These financial problems eventually caught up with him and he was tried by General Court Martial in the Officers’ Library at Eastney Barracks, Portsmouth on 18th July 1910 on two charges of “acting to the prejudice of good order and military discipline”. He was found guilty of the second charge and sentenced to be severely reprimanded. On 27th September 1910 he was posted to H. M. S. “Agamemnon” where he served until retiring at his own request with a gratuity of £1200 on 1st April 1911 and being appointed to the Reserve of Officers, Royal Marines on the same day. From 1911 to 1914 he was a planter in Ceylon.
He was recalled to active service on 10th August 1914 and served in the Orkneys commanding the batteries at Hoxa and Stanger at Scapa Flow. Through his efforts “the batteries were brought to a state of efficiency, whilst they kept their personnel, consisting of mostly old men in a fit and efficient condition throughout the trying winter of 1914-1915. The men were for a long time in tents. On boggy ground without even bottom boards, for the winter was well advanced before the huts were built; this was a high test of the stamina, discipline and courage of the Royal Marine Reservist, which triumphed over all difficulties and even over his rheumatism.”
From 23ed December 1914 until 7th June 1915 he served on H. M. S. “Cyclops” at Scapa Flow. He was tried by naval court martial on board H.M.S. “Royal Arthur” on 7th June 1915, charged with being drunk on board “Royal Arthur.” He was found guilty and sentenced to be dismissed from “Royal Arthur” and to be severely reprimanded. From 8th June 1915 to 16th October 1915 he was posted to a 4-inch Royal Marine Artillery Battery in France. In late October 1915 a battery of 4-inch guns on field carriages was formed at Eastney, with Major Harding in command and with Captain Twiss as Battery Captain. They left headquarters for Plymouth on 15th October 1915 and embarked from there for Salonika. On arrival at Malta the battery was diverted with its guns to Alexandria, which was being used as a base for the forthcoming Salonika expedition. They arrived in Alexandria on 30th October 1915 and were added to the coastal defences there. Battery headquarters and two of the guns were established at Sil Silleh and the other two guns were sent to Mustapha under Captain Twiss.
Meanwhile the Senassi were causing trouble on the northwest frontier of Egypt, supported by Turkish submarines. When they captured Sollun in November 1915, Captain Twiss with 20 N.C.O.s and men and the two 4-inch guns from Mustapha were landed at Mersa Matruk on 26th December 1915. The sand proved so soft that the guns sank in it up to their axles and so for the time being there was nothing that could be done until a general advance was possible. On 29th November 1915 he was admitted to the 15th General Hospital at Alexandria with fever but re-joined his unit on 13th December 1915.
In January and February 1916 there were various small engagements, and at the end of February a general advance was possible, but due to the ground conditions the guns remained in position. In the early part of March Sollum was recaptured and Twiss was transferred to the Coast Defence, Sollum on 18th March 1916. He embarked at Alexandria on 8th May 1916 and returned to England via Marseilles on 20th May 1916. He served with the Royal Marine Artillery Division from 21st May 1916 to 21st August 1916. On 24th May 1916 he was admitted to the Royal Naval Hospital at Haslar with an oriental sore on the calf of his left leg. He was re-surveyed on 11th August 1916 and found fit for active service.
In consequence of a request from the War Office to the Royal Marine Office for officers for Siege Artillery he was demobilized from the Royal Marine Artillery on 20th August 1916 and appointed as a Temporary Captain in the Royal Garrison Artillery on the same day. He went to France on 15th November 1916 and was appointed as an Acting Major while commanding 199th Siege Battery, Royal Garrison Artillery from 21st November 1916 to 15th July 1917. At Achiecourt, near Arras, on 8th April 1917 he was “struck on the back by falling debris and while resting, was later in the same day, thrown over by another shell striking the room he was in.” In his own words: “as however, I was only badly shaken and bruised and at that time not sufficiently bad in my opinion to leave the line, I carried on.” In July 1917 near Boesinghe “he was blown up by a shell” and spent a fortnight in the hospital, re-joining his battery at Passchendaele. On 15th August 1917 he was appointed an Acting Major while commanding a Siege Battery.
“Subsequently he complained of lumbar pain and sciatica on the right side which rendered him incapable of performing his duties and he was admitted to hospital on 30th March 1918.” On 27th April 1918 he was evacuated from Boulogne to Dover on a Hospital Ship and admitted to a hospital in London where he remained for seven months. He was mentioned in the 15th September 1917 despatches of Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig, Commanding-in-Chief, the British Armies in France “for gallant service and devotion to duty” (in the London Gazette of 11th December 1917) and was appointed as a Temporary Major, Royal Garrison Artillery on 15th September 1918.
In November 1918 he was posted to the 4th Siege Artillery Reserve Brigade at Ramillies Barracks, Aldershot, but in in December 1918 he was sent back to the hospital. He left the hospital on 6th March 1919 and returned to the 4th Siege Artillery Reserve Brigade on 30th April 1919. On 20th July 1919 he was “ informed that his services were of no further use and ordered to report back to the Admiralty. He relinquished his temporary commission in the Royal Garrison Artillery on 22nd July 1919 and retained the rank of Major in the army. The Admiralty denied responsibility for him, because they had demobilized him in 1916. Their Lordships in 1920 approved Twiss being allowed to volunteer for the Royal Irish Constabulary. In 1921 he engaged in a tour through Scotland delivering lectures “illustrated by a unique and beautiful series of colour and motion pictures, on the campaigns in Arabia and Palestine.” On 17th April 1924 Twiss left Southampton, England on the SS Minnesota bound for Quebec, Canada to take up farming. He died at The Vicarage, Bicester, Oxfordshire on 9th June 1945, leaving £49 5s 11d to his sister, Adelaide Ouchterlony Cowland-Cooper, wife of Charles Paul Cowland-Cooper. At the time of his death he lived at 1 Windsor Drive, Audenshaw, near Manchester.
Army Lists
London Gazette
Medal Index Card
Royal Marine Papers (ADM196/63
RGA Officer’s Papers (WO339/68833)
Globe and Laurel, September 1916
Globe and Laurel, June 1921
Globe and Laurel, November 1945
Britain’s Sea Soldiers: History of Royal Marine Artillery, 1930
Royal Marines in the War of 1914-1919
Alumni Felstediensis 1852-1921.
Alumni Felstediensis 1890-1950

1816. In consequence of the peace, the establishment was reduced to eighty companies, consisting of battalion companies, 6,760, four artillery companies 368, staff 94, making a total of 6,222 men. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1817. Tuesday 25th November. By order in Council of the 25th November, the corps was fixed at 6,235 men, in eighty companies, of which eight were artillery: and in 1818 and 1819 at 6,000 men. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1817. Captain Edward Nicholls, later known as ‘fighting Nicholls’ and to become a General of Royal Marines, raised a Regiment of North American Indians to fight in the War of Independence. These Indians comprised mainly of Seminoles, Redstick Creeks and Choctaw warriors.

1817. Bombardment of Mocha by Eden.

1817. During the summer Captain George Woodbine, one of Edward Nicoll's former subordinate officers, was present in Spanish East Florida together with the former British soldier and Scottish mercenary lieutenant of Simon Bolivar, Gregor MacGregor. Woodbine and Macgregor both left Spanish East Florida to re-join the Latin American revolutionary movement prior to U.S. military intervention in East Florida. The names of Nicolls, Woodbine, and Macgregor, had become associated with the arming of blacks as soldiers, militiamen, and even as mercenaries. The threat, real or imaginary, was an anathema to North American popular conceptions of the time.

The Niles' Weekly Register of Baltimore also published, between July and October 1818, portions of correspondence between Nicolls and the former auxiliary 2nd Lt Robert Chrystie Armbrister (1797–1818) of the first "battalion" of the Corps of Colonial Marines. Armbrister was one of two British subjects executed in the Arbuthnot and Ambrister incident by order of Major General Andrew Jackson following a drumhead trial at Saint Marks in West Florida in April 1818. Josiah Francis and another Seminole leader, Nehemathla Micco, were also summarily executed by the Americans in Spanish territorial waters in April 1818. In the correspondence of Armbrister, assistance is asked of Nicolls to intervene with the British government on behalf of former allies seeking asylum in Spanish West Florida from perceived American wrongdoing and injustice.

1818.  The Marines were landed without any encumbrances, with 60 rounds of ammunition, and proportion of small rockets was to be distributed among them for throwing into casemates, and four steady men from each Division were to be selected to carry rockets and storming poles. It was intended to have stormed the Mole opposite HMS Queen Charlotte but it was the difficulty of communicating with her and getting the Sappers and Marines off again, that prevented Lord Exmouth’s ordering it.

1818. By order in Council of the Corps was fixed at 6000 men.

1819. By order in Council of the Corps was fixed at 6000 men .

1820. Saturday 6th May. An order in Council regulated the pay of Quarter-masters. . By order in Council of the 25th November, the corps was fixed at 6,235 men, in eighty companies, of which eight were artillery: and in 1818 and 1819 at 6,000 men. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1820. July. The first reference to a Band at Woolwich Barracks.

1820. Monday 6th - 12th July. The British were involved in a Battle at Algeciras with French / Spanish vessels.

1820. Wednesday 23rd July. The first band of the Royal Marine Artillery was formed. During this time the Artillery Company's were based at Chatham.

1820. Friday 4th - 30th December. Royal Marines and Seamen from HMS Topaze storm Mocha.

1820 - 1822.The Corps was increased to 8,000 men. By order in Council of the 25th November, the corps was fixed at 6,235 men, in eighty companies, of which eight were artillery: and in 1818 and 1819 at 6,000 men. (Volume 1 Historical Records of the Royal Marine Forces by Paul Harris Nicolas Lieut. Royal Marines.)

1822. Monday 30th December. Eliza engaged two pirates off Guajaba and took one.

1823. Friday 31st January. Cameleon and Naiad captured Algerine corsair Tripoli.

1823. Friday 28th March. Boats of Naiad distroyed a pirate brig at Bona.

1823. Friday 28th March. Boats of Tyne and Thracian captured Zarajonaza.

1823. The Corps strength was 8,700 men, distributed in eighty five divisional and eight artillery companies.

1823. Edward Nicolls became the first Royal Marines commandant of Ascension Island. Ascension is a small volcanic island in the South Atlantic, halfway between South America and Africa. In 1815, HMS Zenobia and HMS Peruvian took the island to prevent it from being used as a staging post from which to rescue Napoleon Bonaparte from Saint Helena. From 1815 until Nicolls took over, the Royal Navy registered the island as a "small Sloop of 50 or 60 Men", HMS Ascension, since the Navy was forbidden to govern colonies. The island had a garrison of about thirty, with a few families, servants, and liberated Africans. The Royal Navy came to use the island as a victualling station for ships, particularly those of the West Africa Squadron (or Preventative Squadron), which were working to suppress the slave trade.

Water was scarce, and an important task for Nicolls was to ensure that the island had a stable source of water. He achieved this by installing systems of pipes and carts to bring water to the settlement from the few springs in the mountains. Food was mostly shipped from England, but some could be procured locally: fish, a few vegetables grown on the island, feral goats and sheep, fishy-tasting eggs from a tern colony on the island, and turtle meat obtained during the laying season from December to May. Due to Nicolls's efforts in directing the harvest of turtles, turtle meat, an expensive delicacy in England, became so common it was fed to prisoners and pigs, and Marines complained of it. This surfeit of turtle irritated Nicolls's superiors and the Lords of the Admiralty, and when an Admiral ordered Nicolls to stop feeding turtle to prisoners, he started selling or bartering it to visiting ships. With this monotonous diet, men on the island relied on rum for spice. Nicolls understood this and gave large rations of grog when his men showed "spirited and Soldier like feelings".

On the confines of the island feuds were vicious, and one surgeon went insane. Pirates were frequently seen off Ascension, keeping the garrison on edge. Nicolls was also busied by many infrastructure projects on the island, building roads, water tanks, a storehouse, and developing the gardens on Green Mountain. For these efforts, Nicolls had about sixty freed Africans sent to Ascension, and additionally asked for convicts.

Nicolls had many such grand schemes for trade between Britain and its colonies, but these all failed to materialise. These schemes included a plan to grow oaks in Sierra Leone for Royal Navy ships, a plan to ship Ascension rocks to England, and a plan to ship New Zealand flax to England which he discussed in a letter to Henry Bathurst, 3rd Earl Bathurst. On Monday 3rd November 1828 Captain William Bate replaced Nicolls as commandant on Ascension.

During his time in control of Fernando Po, Edward Nicolls clashed with the Portuguese authorities on the neighbouring islands of São Tomé and Príncipe regarding his refusal to return slaves escaping from there. In an 1842 letter to The Times he says he was accused by the Portuguese governor, Senhor Ferreira, of deliberately enticing slaves to run away and of encouraging 'thieves' and 'murderers'. This charge he denied, asserting that he had never actively encouraged slaves from nearby islands to make the dangerous crossing to Fernando Po: but that if they chose to do so, it was his duty under British law not to return them to slavery. He considered those slaves who killed in the course of their escapes as legally and morally justified in their action; nor did he regard them as thieves for having seized canoes to escape in. He offered to return the canoes however, and informed Ferreira that if the latter could persuade any of the escapees to return voluntarily to a state of slavery, Nicolls would not impede them. He wrote to The Times on the subject because of the debate which followed the Creole case in which slaves transported aboard an American vessel had taken control of her and forced the crew to take them to a British-run port.

1823. The two departments of Royal Marine Artillery and the Royal Marine Light Infantry, merged to become the Royal Marines once again.